• The Community Development Programme was launched on Oct.,1952 in Rajasthan. Panchayat Raj is an important feature of the Indian Political System which ensures the direct participation of people at the grass roots level.
  • In 1956, the National Development council appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Balwantrai G. Mehta to suggest measures for the better working of the Community Development Programmed and the national Extension Service. The National Development Council accepted the recommendations of BalwantRai Mehta Committee
  • The committee submitted its record in 1957 in which it recommended- A three-tier structure of the village at the bottom, district at the top and an intermediary structure in between.
  • The recommendations of the Committee were approved by the National Development Council in 1958, and thus set thestage for the launching Panchayat Raj institutions throughout the country. The country
  • The Panchayati Raj (also called, DemocraticDecentralization) was accepted by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
  • The three-tier system ofPanchayat Raj was first adopted by Rajasthanon October 2, 195 This was followed by Andhra, Bihar, Gujarat,Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.

Three-tier System

  • The three-tier system of local self-government envisages
  • Panchayat at the village level
  • PanchayatSamitis at the block level
  • ZillaParishad at the district level.
  • Each tier is organically linked to the next tier through the system ofindirect elections.

Panchayat Raj Under the 73rd Constitutional Amendment

  • December 1992 Congress (I) government carried out this amendment the Panchayati Raj institutions have been provided constitutional status


  • This Act correspondence to Part IX of constitution of India It is entitled as ‘The Panchayats’ and consists provisions of ArticIes-243 to 243-Q. The Act has also added the Eleventh Schedule to the’ Constitution of India.
  • It contains 29 functional items of the Panchayats and deals with Article 2434-G. The Act has given a practical shape to Article 40 of the Constitution.
  • The Act gives a Constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj institutions. The State Governments are under the Constitutional obligation to adopt the new PanchayatiRaj System in accordance with the provisions of the Act
  • Neither the formation of the Panchayats nor the holding of elections at regular intervals depends on the will of the State Government. 73rd and 74th amendment act inserted Part IX and IX A in the Constitution.
  • Part IX relates to the Panchayats and Part IX A relates to the municipalities. Some of the novel provisions of this new system are :

(i) Direct election by the people

(ii) Reservation of seats for women

(iii) An election commission to conduct election

(iv) A finance commission to ensure financial viability of these institutions.

  • Out of the seats so reserved not less than 1/3rdof the seats shall be reserved for women belonging to SC/ ST respectively.
  • Not less than l/31-d of the total number of seats to be filled by direct elections in every panchayat shall be reserved for women.
  • Such seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a panchayat.


  • It emerged as the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992 and came into force on 1st June 1993. This Act contains Part-IX A of the Constitution of India.
  • It is entitled as ‘The Municipalities’ and consists provisions of Article 243-P to 243-ZG.
  • The Act also added the Twelfth Schedule to the Constitution.
  • It contains 18 functional items of the Municipalities and deals with Art 243.
  • The Act gave Constitutional status to the Municipalities.
  • It brought them under the purview of justifiable part of the Constitution.
  • The Act provided for the constitution of the following three types of Municipalities in every State;

(i) A Nagar Panchayat for a transitional area,

(ii) A Municipal Council for a-smaller urban area,

(iii) A Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area.

  • The following eight types of urban local bodies are created in India for the administration of urban areas: Municipal Corporation, Municipality, Notified Area Committee, Town Area Committee, Cantonment Board, Township ,Port Trust, Special Purpose Agency.


  • The Community Development Programme was launched on Oct. 2,1952
  • The Democratic Decentralisation was implemented for the first time in some areas of Andhra Pradesh on experimental basis.
  • The Panchayati Raj was introduced for the first time on Oct,2,1959 in Nagaur District of Rajasthan by the Prime Minister,Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Rajasthan is the first State in India,wherePanchayatiRai was implemented in the whole State
  • The Central Government declared the year 2009-10 as the Gram Sabha Year the completion of 50 years of Panchayati Raj in India
  • Panchayat Day is observed on 24th April every year
  • Gram Nyayalaya Act came into force on October 2,2008
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