Indian National Congress, Emergence of National Leaders

Factors for the Rise of
 Unification of administration,
Modern Education System, Revolt
of 1857 and other factor grew the
nationalism in Indian people.
Following were the main causes of
national consciousness.
Administrative Unification of
 Modernisation was essential
for the colonial scheme of
administration and this
modernisation in one sense gave
birth to Indian nationalism.
 Common subjection, common
institutions and common laws
began to shape India in a
common mould.
 The establishment of political
unity fostered the spirit of one
Economic Causes
 The economic policies of the
British adversely affected the
interests of almost all sections of
Indian society viz the peasants,

The rise and growth of
Indian nationalism has been
traditionally explained in
terms of Indian response to
the stimulus generated by
Britishers through creation
of new institutions,
opportunities, resources etc.
Infact Indian nationalism
grew partly as a result of
colonial policies and
partlyas reaction to it.
middle classes, workers,
industrialists etc. The huge
economic drain on India‟s
resources, commercialisation of
agriculture, the policy of land
settlements accompanied with
periodic famines was disastrous.
 Discriminatory British economic
and fiscal policies gave rise to
economic nationalism in India.
People came to realise that
colonial rule was the real cause
of India‟s economic
 Thus, the spirit of nationalism
received a powerful stimulus in
the process.
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Spread of Western Education
and Thought
 English Language It was made
the medium of instruction in
schools and colleges in 1835 and
it became the language of the
educated people of India.
 The introduction of modern
system of education afforded
opportunities for assimilation of
modern western ideas and made
the Indians realise the evil effects
of foreign rule, which in turn
gave a new direction to Indian
political thinking.
 The liberal and radical thought,
of European writers like Milton,
Bentham, Rosseau and Voltaire
 Inspired the Indians in general
and intelligentsia in particular
with the ideals of liberty,
nationality and self-government.
Development of the means of
 Development of railways,
Modern Postal System and
the introduction of electric
telegraph during the reign of
Dalhousie unified the country
and facilitated the growth of
 Railways led to increase in
passenger traffic which in turn
increased interaction between
the people and maintained a
regular contact between them.
Emergence of Modern Press
 The rapid growth of press helped
the nationalist Indians in
spreading the message of
patriotism and modern liberal
ideas and to create a strong
public opinion against the
excesses and inequities of the
colonial administration.
Rediscovery of India’s Past
 Historical researches by
European scholars, such as Max
Muller, Monier Willliams,
Sassoon and Roth and by
Indian scholars such as RG
Bhandarkar, RL Mitra and
Swami Vivekanada opened new
vistas of India‟s rich sociopolitical, economic and cultural
Indian National Movement
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heritage. This gave new sense of
self respect and confidence
among the nationalists.
 Bankim Chandra wrote Anand
Math to expose the true
character of British Rule.
 Dina BandhuMitra wrote Neel
Darpanto expose the
exploitation by indigo planters
and Bharatendu Harishchandra
put forward the idea for the use
of swadeshi things.
Socio-Religious Movement
 Various socio-religious reform
movements like BrahmoSamaj,
Arya-Samaj, the Ramakrishna
Mission were launched to reform
the society.
 In the religious sphere, the
reform movements criticised
religious superstition, idolatry,
polytheism and hereditary
priesthood. These movements
criticised the caste system,
untouchability and other social
and legal inequalities.
 They played a vital role in
arousing nationalist feeling, like
Swami Dayananad for instance,
was the first to use the word
Swaraj. Many Arya Samaji‟swere
in the forefront of the national
movement and were primarily
responsible for the rise of
extremism in the INC.
Rise of Urban Middle Class
 The Western education and
British administrative and
economic innovations gave rise
to a new urban middle class in
towns. This class had close ties
with the ruling class and were
aware of the imperialistic
policies of the British, came to
the forefront.
Impact of Contemporary Global
 Some contemporary national
movements in the European
nations like German Unification,
Italian Unification, nationalist
movements against the Turkish
empire, Liberation Movement of
Greece and Italy in general and
of Ireland in particular helped
Indian nationalism.
Lord Lytton’s Reactionary
 The highly expensive Second
Afghan War, which was financed
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out of Indian revenues, the
abolition of import duties on
British textile and the Arms Act
of 1878, which was an attempt to
disarm the Indian people,
created widespread discontent
against the British empire.
 Another anti Indian move of
Lytton‟s regime was the lowering
the age limit (from 21 to 19) for
appearing in the Indian Civil
Service Examination that was
held only in London. Against
this Indian Association started a
massive agitation under the
leadership of SN Bannerjee and
Lal Mohan Ghose. The Grand
Durbar organised by Lord
Lytton in 1877 at Delhi to
proclaim the assumption of
imperial title by Queen Victoria
when the country was in the
severe grip of famine.
Vernacular Press Act
 The Vernacular Press Act, (1878)
that curbed the liberty of the
Indian Press (later the Act was
repealed by Lord Ripon), was
popularly known as Gagging Act.
To bypass the
restrictions imposed by
Vernacular Press, Amrita Bazaar
Patrika was immediately
converted to an English Paper.
The founding of the newspaper
Hindu in Madras was also in
reaction to Lytton‟s Press Act.
Pre-Congress Political
 During the course of 19th century
various organisations started
emerging at regional level to
The Ilbert Bill Controversy
Officially called the Criminal
Procedure Amendment Code Bill was
introduced by Sir Courtenay Ilbert
(law member in the GovernorGeneral Executive Council) in the
Governor Generals Legislative
Council in February, 1883. Its aim
was to give Indian district
magistrates and sessions judges the
right to try European and British
offenders, in criminal Cases. The bill
gave birth to strong protest
movement by the members of the
European community and they stood
united against the Bill. They sought
of protect their rights and privileges
by forming a European and AngloIndian Defe
nce Association. Ripon had to modify
the bill which now provided the
European British subjects, accused of
criminal offences, the right to claim
trail by jury, to which no less than
half the member had to be
Europeans or Americans. The Ilbert
Bill Controversy proved an eyeopener to the Indians and intensified
the growing feeling of unity and
nationalism among Indians.
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represent interests of various
sections of Indian Society. These
organisations prepared the
foundation for the emergence of
a Pan-Indian Nationalist
Organisation Founder Place Year
Landholder‟s Society/
Zamindari Association
Dwarakanath Tagore Calcutta 1837
Indian National Union AO Hume Calcutta 1883
Bengal British India Society George Thompson Calcutta 1843
British Indian Association DevendraNath Tagore Calcutta 1851
Madras Native Association Lakshmi NarasuChetty, PS
Madras 1852
Bombay Association JaganathShankersheth Bombay 1852
East India Association Dada Bhai Naoroji London 1866
Poona Sarvajanik Sabha MG Rande, GV Joshi Puna 1870
Indian Association SN Banerjee, Anand
Mohan Bose
Calcutta 1876
Madras Mahajan Sabha First Leader P. Rangaiya
M. Viraraghavachari, G.
SubramanyaAiyer, Ananda
Madras 1884
Bombay Presidency Pherozshan Mehta,
K.T.Telang, Badruddin
Bombay 1885
Indian Society Anand Mohan Bose London 1872
British Indian Society Willian Adam Calcutta 1839
London Indian Society Badruddin Tyabji, WC
Banerjee, Pherozshah
London 1865
National Indian Association Mary Carpenter London 1867
Deccan Association Gopal Hari Deshmukh Pune 1852
National Respresentative
London 1883
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Birth of Indian National Congress
 Congress
was the natural
and inevitable
product of various
forces of the 19th
 The credit for the birth of the
congress is often given to AO Hume,
who with the blessings of the
Viceroy Lord Dufferin successfully
organised the prominent political
leaders and founded Indian
National Congress.
Background of INC
 Indian Association decided to
hold its first Indian Conference
in Calcutta at the same time, so
that it can reach to the masses,
but the plan failed.
 In 1884, at the annual
convention of the
Theosophical Society at
Adyar in Madras, AO Hume
proposed formation of a
committee, so as to make
necessary preparations for a
session at Pune to be held in
 Members of the committee
included AO Hume, SN
Bannerjee, Narendra Nath Sen,
Subramanya Aiyar, P Ananda
Charlu, SardarDayal Singh,
LalaSriram, KT Telang and VN
 Before the formation of Indian
National Congress, two sessions
of the Indian National
Conference had been held in
1883 and 1885 under the
guidance of SN Bannerjee and
Anand Mohan Bose.
 AO Hume was a retired British
member of Indian Civil Service.
He played an important role in
the foundation of the Indian
National Congress in 1885.
 Earlier, he founded the Indian
National Union in 1884, which is
considered to be the fore runner
of the Indian National Congress.
 He served as the General
Secretary of INC from 1885 to
 AO Hume published a pamphlet,
an old man’s hope in the
Madras Session in 1887.
The first Indian pilot- JRD Tata (1929)
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Formation of INC
 Indian National Congress was
finally formed on 28th December,
 The first session of the Indian
National Congress was held on
28th December, 1885 at
Tejpal Sanskrit Pathshala,
Bombay under the president
ship of WC Bannerjee.
 In 1886, the delegates to
Congress became 436. Moderate
leaders dominated the Congress
in its early phase. The moderate
belief in the essential sense of
justice and goodness of the
British nation was strong.
 In 1889, a British Committee
of Indian National Congress
was founded under the
Chairmanship of W Wedderburn
(biographer of AO Hume) in
London and a journal India was
also started.
 The leading figures during the
first phase were W.C. Banerjee,
Surendra Nath Banerjee,
Dadabhai Naoroji, Pheroze Shah
Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale,
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya,
Badruddin Tyabji,
G.SubramanyaAiyar, AO Hume,
MG Ranade, C ShankaranNaiyar,
VS Shrinivas Shastri, Tej Bahadur
Sapru, Anand Mohan Bose, Ras
Bihari Ghosh, Mohanlal Ghosh, P.
Anand Charlu, CY
Chintamani, RC Dutt, KT Tailang,
Madhusudan Das, Rahimtulla M
 Surendranath Banerjee was called
the Indian Burke. He firmly
opposed the Partition of Bengal.
He founded the Indian
Association (1876) to agitate for
political reforms. He had
convened the Indian National
Conference (1883) which
merged with the Indian National
Congress in l886.
G.Subramanya Aiyar preached
nationalism through the Madras
Mahajana Sabha. He also founded
The Hindu and Swadesamitran.
Dadabhai Naoroji was known as
the Grand Old Man of India.
He is regarded as India‟s
unofficial Ambassador in
England. He was the first Indian
to become a Member of the British
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House of Commons. Gopal
Krishna Gokhale was regarded as
the political guru of Gandhi. In
1905, he founded the Servants
of India Society to train Indians
to dedicate their lives to the cause
of the country.
Main Demands of Moderates
 Expansion and reform of
legislative councils.
 Greater opportunities for
Indians in higher posts by
holding the ICS examination
simultaneously in England and
in India.
 Separation of the judiciary from
the executive.
 More powers for the local bodies.
 Reduction of land revenue and
protection of peasants from
unjust landlords.
 Abolition of salt tax and sugar
 Reduction of spending on army.
 Freedom of speech and
expression and freedom to form
Methods of Moderates
 The Moderates had total faith in
the British sense of justice and fair
play. They were loyal to the
British. They looked to England
for inspiration and guidance.
 The Moderates used petitions,
resolutions, meetings, leaflets and
pamphlets, memorandum and
delegations to present their
 They confined their political
activities to the educated classes
only. Their aim was to attain
political rights and selfgovernment stage by stage.
Achievements of Moderates
1. The Moderates were able to create
a wide national awakening among
the people.
2. They popularized the ideas of
democracy, civil liberties and
representative institutions.
3. They explained how the British
were exploiting Indians.
Particularly, Dadabhai Naoroji in
his famous book Poverty and Un
British Rule in India wrote his
Drain Theory. He showed how
India‟s wealth was going away to
England in the form of: (a)
salaries, (b)savings, (c) pensions,
(d) payments to British troops in
India and (e) profits of the British
companies. In fact, the British
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Government was forced to appoint
the Welby Commission, with
Dadabhai as the first Indian as its
member, to enquire into the
4. Some Moderates like Ranade and
Gokhale favoured social reforms.
They protested against child
marriage and widowhood.
5. The Moderates had succeeded in
getting the expansion of the
legislative councils by the Indian
Councils Act of 1892, which
allowed some members to be
indirectly elected by Indians, but
keeping the official majority
Causes for the Rise of Extremism
1. Dissatisfaction with the methods
and achievements of moderates
2. The failure of the Moderates to
win any notable success other
than the expansion of the
legislative councils by the Indian
Councils Act (1892).
3. Growing consciousness about the
exploitative character of the
British rule. Loss of Britain in
the Boer wars (1899-1902)
demolished the myth of
Whiteman supremacy.
4. The famine and plague of 1896-
97 which affected the whole
country and the suffering of the
5. The economic conditions of the
people became worse.
6. The ill-treatment of Indians in
South Africa on the basis of
colour of skin.
7. The Russo-Japanese war of 1904-
5 in which Japan defeated the
European power Russia. This
encouraged Indians to fight
against the European nation,
8. The immediate cause for the rise
of extremism was the reactionary
rule of Lord Curzon:
 He passed the Calcutta
Corporation Act, (1899)
reducing the Indian control of
this local body.
 The Universities Act (1904)
reduced the elected members
in the University bodies. It
also reduced the autonomy of
the universities and made
them government
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 The Sedition Act and the
Official Secrets Act (1904)
reduced the freedoms of all
 His worst measure was the
Partition of Bengal (1905).
Main Objective of Extremists
 Their main objective was to attain
Swaraj or complete independence
and not just self-government.
The methods used by the
extremists were:
1. Not cooperating with the British
Government by boycotting
government courts, schools and
2. Promotion of Swadeshi and
boycott of foreign goods.
3. Introduction and promotion of
national education.
Leaders of the Extremists
 LalaLajpat Rai,
BalGangadharTilak, Bipin
Chandra Pal, Sir Aurobindo
Ghosh, Chakravarti Bose,
T.Prakasham and Chidambaram
 Bipan Chandra Pal began his
career as a moderate and turned
an extremist. He played an
important role in the Swadeshi
Movement. He preached
nationalism through the nook and
corner of Indian by his powerful
speeches and writings.
 Aurobinda Ghosh was another
extremist leader and he actively
participated in the Swadeshi
Movement. He was also
imprisoned. After his release he
settled in the French territory of
Pondicherry and concentrated on
spiritual activities.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak is regarded as
the real founder of the popular antiBritish movement in India. He was
known as „Lokamanya‟. He attacked
the British through his weeklies, The
Mahratta and the Kesari. He was
jailed twice by the British for his
nationalist activities and in 1908
deported to Mandalay for six years.
He set up the Home Rule League in
1916 at Poona and declared “Swaraj is
my birth-right and I will have it.”
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Partition of Bengal
 Through a royal proclamation,
Lord Curzon ordered Partition
of Bengal creating East Bengal
and Assam out of rest of Bengal
on 16th October, 1905.
 The objective was to set up a
communal gulf between the
Hindus and Muslims.
 The Indian National Movement
entered its second phase after
the Partition of Bengal.
 The British said that the existing
province of Bengal was too big to
be efficiently administered by a
single Provincial Government.
 The Indian National Congress
and the nationalists of Bengal
firmly opposed the Partition.
Within Bengal, different sections
of population-Zamindars,
merchants, law years, students
and even women rose up in
spontaneous opposition to the
partition of their province.
 Divide and Rule The
nationalists could see that it was
a deliberate attempt to divide the
Bengal‟s territory on religious
grounds as far Eastern part
Muslims will be in majority and
for the Western part, the Hindus.
 Rabindranath Tagore
composed the National Song
Amar Sonar Bangla for the
occasion. This song was adopted
as National Anthem by
Bangladesh in 1971, after its
liberation from Pakistan.
The Anti-Partition Movement
 The
movement was initiated on 7th
August, 1905. On that day, a
massive demonstration against
the partition, was organized in
the Town Hall in Calcutta.
LalaLajpat Rai is popularly
known as the ‘Lion of Punjab’.
He played an important role in
the Swadeshi Movement. He
founded the Indian Home Rule
League in the US in 1916. He was
deported to Mandalay on the
ground of sedition. He received
fatal injuries while leading a
procession against the Simon
Commission and died on
November 17, 1928.
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 The partition took effect on 16th
October, 1905.
The Swadeshi and Boycott
 It had its origin in the AntiPatition movement of Bengal.
Mass meetings were held all over
Bengal, where Swadeshi or the
use of Indian goods and the
boycott of British goods were
proclaimed and pledged. Public
burning of foreign cloth were
organized and shops selling
foreign cloths were picketed.
 An important aspect of the
Swadeshi Movement was the
emphasis placed on self reliance
or Atmashakti.
 Acharya PC Roy organized his
famous Bengal Chemical
Swadeshi stores.
 The Swadeshi Movement had
several consequences like
flowering of nationalist poetry,
prose, journalism, self-reliant
and constructive activity,
coupled with opening up of
many national educational
 Nationalist Educational
Institutions were founded e.g.,
Bengal Technical Institute,
Bengal National College.
 BC Pal and Chidambram Pillai
Vandemataram Movement
 LalaLajpat Rai and Ajit Singh led
the movement in Punjab.
Failure of Swadeshi Movement
 Severe government repression.
 Split in nationalists at Surat
(Moderates and Extremists).
 Lack of effective organization.
 The movement was rendered
Formation of Muslim League
 Set-up in 1906, under the
leadership of Aga Khan, Nawab
Salimullah of Dhaka and Nawab
 It supported partition of Bengal,
opposed the Swadeshi
Movement, demanded special
safe gurards for its community
and separate electorate for
 Calcutta Session of INC
(1906) Dadabhai Naoroji, the
President of the session,
declared that Self Government of
Swaraj, like that of United
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Kingdom was the goal of Indian
 The INC splited into two groups
during the session at Surat in
1907. Extremists were led by
Lal, Bal, Pal, While Moderates
by led by GK Gokhale.
 They demanded mild
constitutional reforms, economic
relief, administrative
reorganization and protection of
civil rights.
 They were dissatisfied with the
achievement of the moderates.
They realized that the true
nature of British was
 There were 3 groups of
extremists The Maharashtrian
group (headed by Bal
GangadharTilak), the Bengal
group (represented by BC Pal
and Aurobindo) and the
Punjab group (led by
LalaLajpat Rai).
 Aurobindo published New
lamps for old in the Indu
Prakash in 1954-94. It was the
first systematic critique of the
Indian Councils Act of 1909 or
the-Morley Minto Reforms
 Number of elected members in
the imperial and provincial
legislative councils increased.
Separate electorates introduced
for Muslims.
 Non-official member to be
elected indirectly. Thus, election
introduced for the first time.
 Legislatures could pass
resolutions, ask questions and
supplementaries and vote for
separate items on the budget.
 One Indian to be in Viceroy‟s
executive council. Satyendra
Sinha was first appointed.
 Annulment of Partition in
1911, the government announced
annulment of the Partition of
 Banaras Session of INC,
1905-Presided by GK Gokhalefirst call for Swadeshi.
 Meeting of INC at Calcutta
th August, 1905-Resolution to
boycott British goods was
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Bengal. Western and Eastern
Bengal were to be reunited.
Ghadar party (1913)
 Formed by LalaHardayal,
Taraknath Das and Sohan Singh
 The war period witnessed the
growth of revolutionary
movement not only in India, but
outside India as well, by the
 Indian revolutionary in the
United States of America and
Canada had established the
Ghadar (Rebellion) party in
1913. Most of the members of
the party were Punjabi Sikh
peasants and ex-soldiers, who
 The party was built around the
weekly paper „The Ghadar‟,
which carried the caption
Angrezi raj ka Dushman.
 Headquarters were at San
 The outbreak of the First World
War provided the Ghadarites
with an opportunity to free India
from a government, which was
indifferent to their cause.
 They began to return India in
thousands for a co-oridinated
revolt, but unfortunately the
authorities came to know about
their plans and took immediate
action. The rebellions regiments
were disbanded and their leader
were either imprisoned or
 Some of the prominent Ghadar
leaders were-Baba Gurumukh
Singh, Kartar Singh Saraba,
Sohan Singh, Bakhna, Rahmat
Ali Shah, Bhai Paramanand and
Mohammad Barkatullah.
 To carry out other revolutionary
activities, “Swadesh Sevak
Home” at Vancouver and united
India house at Settle was set-up.
KomagataMaru Incident (1914)
 Komagata Maru was a
Japanese steam ship that carried
Sikh and Muslim immigrants
from Punjab to Vancouver,
Canada. But the Ship was forced
to return back to India by the
Canadian authorities. The ship
docked at Budge in Calcutta.
The Britishers considered the
passengers as dangerous
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Page 15
political agitators and tried to
arrest Baba Gurdit singh from
among them. Police opened fire
on them and 19 passengers died
in the incident.
Home Rule Movement (1916)
 After Tilak’s return having
served sentence of six years in
Mandlay, he tried securing the
readmission of himself and other
extremists into the Indian
National congress. With the need
being felt for popular pressure to
attain concessions,
disillusionment with MorleyMinto reforms and wartime
miseries. Tilak and Annie
Besant readied to assume
 The Home Rule League was
pioneered on lines of a similar
movement in Ireland. Muslim
League supported the
movement. Its objective was to
work for social and political
Tilak’s Home Rule Movement
 It started in April, 1916 at Poona.
Tilak‟s league was to work in
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central
province and Berar excluding
Bombay. Tilak linked up the
question of Swaraj with the demand
for the formation of linguistic states
and education in Vernacular
 He gave the slogan “Swaraj is my
birth right and I shall have it”.
Tilak‟s newspapers Maratha and
Kesari were organs for Home Rule.
Annie Besant’s Home Rule
 Started with Subramaniyam Iyer at
Adyar in September, 1916. Annie
Besant‟s league
worked in rest of
 Annie
newspapers New
India Commonwealth and
Young India became important
for this movement. She coined the
term Commonwealth.
 George Arundale was the organizing
secretary of the movement.
 Many moderate nationalists, who
were dissatisfied with the Congress
inactivity, joined home rule
agitation. In June 1917, Annie
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Besant was arrested, popular
pressure forced the government to
release her in September, 1917.
Lucknow Session of the Congress
 Presided by a moderate Ambika
Charan Majumdar. The
growing nationalist feeling in the
country produced two historic
developments at the Lucknow
Session of the Indian National
Congress in 1916. Firstly-the two
wings of the Congress were
reunited. The Lucknow
Congress was 1st united
Congress. i.e., brought about an
union of moderates and
 Secondly at Lucknow, the
Congress and the All India
Muslim League sank their old
difference and put up a common
political demand for
representative government and
dominion status, before the
government. Congress accepted
the separate electorates. This led
to separate electorates. This led
to Congress-League pact.
Montague Declaration (1917)
 A British policy was announced
after the Lucknow pact, which
came to be known as the August
Declaration. It aimed at
“increasing association of
Indians in every branch of
administration for progressive
realisation of responsible
government in India. The
declaration formed the basis of
Reforms, of 1919.
Rowlatt Act (1919)
 In 1919, a Sedition
Committee headed by Justice
Rowlatt led to the Rowlatt
Act. This act authorised the
government to imprison any
person without trial and
conviction by the Court of Law
for 2 years. The law also enabled
the government to suspend the
right of Habeas Corpus, which
had been the foundation of Civil
Liberties in Britain. It led to a
countrywide agitation and
marked the foundation of NonCooperation Movement.
Indian‟s first man in space- Rakesh Sharma
Indian National Movement
Page 17
 During March and April 1919,
the country witnessed a
remarkable political awakening
in India. There were hartals,
strikes, processions and
 Gandhi returned to India in 9th
January, 1915. He did not join
any political organization that
did not accept the creed of nonviolent Satyagraha.
During 1917 and 1918, he was
involved in three struggles.
Champaran Satyagraha (1917)
 1
st Civil disobedience Movement.
 To look into the problems of
indigo planters (tinkathia
Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918)
 First hunger strike
 To settle disputes between the
mill owners of Ahmedabad and
the workers.
Kheda Satyagraha (1918)
 First Non-Cooperation
Movement. Due to failure of
crops, the farmers, with Gandhi,
withheld the revenue to get
remission based on revenue
JallianwalaBagh Massacre (13th
April, 1919)
 The dissatisfaction against
Rowlatt Act led to mass
agitations. The government was
determined to suppress the mass
agitation. A large but unarmed
crowd had gathered on 13th
April, 1919 at Amritsar
(Punjab) in the Jallianwala
Bagh, to protest against the
arrest of their popular leaders Dr
Saif-ud-din Kitchlew and Dr
Satyapal. General Dyer, the
Military Commander of
Amritsar, decided to terrorise
the people of Amritsar into
complete submission.
Jallianwala Bagh was a large
open space, which was enclosed
on three sides and had only one
exit. He surrounded the Bagh,
closed the exit with his troops
and then ordered his men to
shoot into the crowd. Thousands
were killed and wounded.
 On 13th March, 1940, Sardar
Udhamsingh Killed O‟ Dyer,
Indian National Movement
Page 18
when the latter was addressing a
meeting in Coxton Hall, London.
 Rabindranath Tagore
returned his knighthood in
 Hunter Commission was
appointed to inquire into it.
The Khilafat Movement
 During the first World War,
Turkey allied with Germany
and Austria against British. The
Indian Muslim regarded the
Sultan of Turkey as their
spiritual leader, Khalifa.
 After the war, the British
removed the Khalifa from his
power and fragmented Turkey.
Hence, the Muslim started the
Khilafat Movement in India,
for the restoration of Khalifa‟s
 The leaders were Ali brothers
(Shukat Ali and Mohammed
Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim
Ajmal Khan and HasratMohani.
Gandhi saw this as an
opportunity to bring about
Hindu-Muslim unity against the
British, although CR Das
opposed it initially.
 The Central Khilafat Committee
met at Allahabad. The meeting
was attended by number of
Congress and Khilafat leaders.
In this meeting, a programme of
non-cooperation towards the
government was declared. This
included boycott of titles
conferred by the government,
boycott of civil services, army
and police, i.e., of all
government jobs.
Non-Cooperation Movement
 It was the first mass based
political movement under
 Non-cooperation through the
most peaceful manner with the
government and its laws, was
endorsed at the annual session of
the Congress held at Nagpur, in
1920. The Nagpur Session also
made changes in the
Constitution of the Congress.
 Anti-Rowlatt agitation,
JallianwalaBagh tragedy,
Khilafat Movement, general
economic distress during and
The first Indian to reach Mount Everest without oxygen- Sherpa
Indian National Movement
Page 19
after the war were the reasons
for Non-Cooperation Movement.
 The TilakSwarajya Fund
started financing the NonCooperation Movement. The
movement envisaged boycott of
school, colleges, law courts,
foreign clothes and advocated
the use of Charkha.
 Boycott of the forthcoming visit
of Prince of Wales in
November, 1921.
 Popularisation of Charkha and
Khadi and Jail Bharoby
Congress volunteers.
 The movements demanded-
– Swaraj or self-rule.
– Redressal of the Punjab
wrongs and Khilafat issue.
 LalaLajpat Rai organized
educational Boycott in Punjab.
 CR Das, C Rajagopalachari, Saifud-din Kitchlew, VB Patel,
ArunaAsaf Ali and Motilal Nehru
gave up their legal practice.
 The Congress Session at
Allahabad in December, 1921
decided to launch a Civil
Disobedience Movement.
But before it could be launched,
the angry peasants (mob)
attacked on a police station at
ChauriChaurain Gorakhpur
district of Uttar Pradesh on 5th
February, 1922. This changed
the whole situation and Gandhiji
was compelled to withdraw the
Non-Cooperation Movement.
Spread of Non-Cooperation
 United Province became a
strong base for the NonCooperation Movement.
 Agrarian-riots under the
leadership of Baba
Ramchandra, Eka
Movement under
 In Punjab-Akali Movement
for reforms and control of
 In Andra Pradesh, the NonCooperation Movement was a
great success. Alluri Sitaram
Raju organized the tribals in
Andra and combined their
demands with those of the NonCooperation Movemnts.
The Swarajists
 Major developments in Indian
politics occurred during 1922-
Indian National Movement
Page 20
28. Differences arose among
leaders after the withdrawal of
the Non-Cooperation
Movement. One school of
thought headed by CR Das and
Motilal Nehru advocated that
nationalists should end the
boycott of legislative council,
enter them, obstruct their
working according to official
plans, expose their weaknesses,
transform them into arenas of
political struggle and thus use
them to arouse public
enthusiasm. They were „prochangers‟.
 SardarVallabhbhai Patel, Dr
Ansari BabuRajendra Prasad
and others opposed council
entry. They were known as „no
 In December, 1922, CR Das and
Motilal Nehru formed
congressKhilafatSwarajyaparty, with
CR Das as President and Motilal
Nehru as Secretary. It worked
within the Congress.
 In the 1923 elections, the
Swarajists won 42 seats out of
the 101 elected seats in the
Central Legislative Assembly.
With the cooperation of other
Indian group, they repeatedly
out-voted the government in the
Central Assembly and in several
of the provincial councils.
 Swarajists were split by
Communalism. The
responsivists offered
cooperation to the government
to safeguard the Hindu
interests. Madan Mohan
Malaviyaand LalaLajpat Rai
founded the Independent
Congress Party, later in 1933.
It was recognized as Congress
Nationalist Party.
Simon Commission (1927)
 In 1927, the British Government
appointed the Indian
Statutory Commission,
known popularly by its chairman
Simon to go into the question of
further Constitutional Reform.
 The committee had to review the
working of the diarchy system,
introduced by Montague
Chelmsford Reform of 1919 and
to report to what extent a
Indian National Movement
Page 21
representative government can
be introduced in India.
 All the members of the
commission were white.
 The Indians, protested, against
the Simon Commission, because
of the exclusion of Indians from
the Commission and in the fear
that the foreigners would discuss
and decide upon India‟s fitness,
for self government.
 The National Congress decided
to boycott the commission in its
Madras Session in 1927,
presided over by Dr Ansari.
 The Muslim League and Hindu
Mahasabhadecided to support
the Congress.
 The Commission‟s arrival in
India led to a powerful protest.
On 3rd February, 1928, the
Commission was greeted with
Hartals and balck flag
demonstrations, under the
slogan Simon Go Back.
 The government used brutal
suppression and police attacks to
break the popular opposition.
 At Lahore, LalaLajpat Rai was
severely beaten in a Lathi charge
and he succumbed to his injuries
on 17th November, 1928.
Nehru Report (1928)
 All important Indian leaders and
parties tried to meet the
challenge of the Simon
Commission by getting together
and trying to evolve an
alternative scheme of
Constitutional Reforms. Nehru
report was tabled in 1928 by
Motilal Nehru.
 It remains memorable as the
first major Indian effort to draft
a constitutional framework for
Indian complete with lists of
central and provincial subjects
and Fundamental Rights.
 However, the recommendations
evoked a debate concerning the
goal of India-Dominion status
or Complete Independence.
The first Indian woman Olympic Medal Winner- KarnamMalleswari
Indian National Movement
Page 22
 Other members of committeeTej Bahadur Sapru, Ali Imam,
MS Aney, Mangal Singh, Sohaib
Qureshi, GR Pradhan and SC
Members of the Nehru
subcommittee which
produced the famous Nehru
Outcome of the Nehru Report
 It demanded responsible
government both at the center
and in the provinces. But, it
advocated dominion status, not
complete independence.
 It demanded Universal Suffrage.
It rejected separate communal
electorate. It proposed Muslim
reservation in the center and
provinces, where they were in
 The report recommended equal
rights for women, freedom to
form unions and disassociation
of the state from religion in any
 It demanded for reorganization
of the North-West provinces on
linguistic basis.
Jinnah’s 14 points (9th March,
 Jinnah, the leader of Muslim
League did not accept the Nehru
Report and drew up a list of
fourteen demands, which
became famous as 14 points of
Lahore Session (1929)
 This session was presided by
Jawaharlal Nehru. Gandhi came
back to active politics by that
 Draw in talks broke down on the
issue of dominion status, which
the British were reluctant to give.
 This session passed a resolution
of Poorna Swaraj (Complete
independence) as its ultimate
 On 31st December, 1929 the
newly adopted tricolor, was
hoisted and 26th January, 1930
Pt.Moti Lal Nehru President
Sardar Manal singh Member
Sir Sapru Member
Sir M.S. Aney Member
Sir Ali Iman Member
Mr. ShoaibQurehi Member
Sir Subash Bose Member
G.K.Pradhan Member
Indian National Movement
Page 23
was fixed as the First
Independence Day.
 The Congress Session also
announced a Civil
Disobedience Movement
under the leadership of
Mahatma Gandhi.
 Congress decided to boycott the
first Round Table Conference.
Civil Disobedience Movement
 Before starting the Civil
Disobedience Movement,
Gandhiji placed an eleven
point ultimatum before Irwin
for administrative reforms and
stated that if Lord Irwin
accepted them, them there will
be no agitation.
 The Civil Disobedience
Movement was started by
Gandhi on 12th March, 1930
with his famous Dandi March.
Together with 78 chosen
followers, Gandhi walked
nearly 375 km from Sabarmati
Ashram to Dandi, a village on
the Gujarat sea-coast.
On April 5, Gandhi and his
party reached Dandi. Next
morning (6th April) Gandhi and
his volunteers picked up salt
lying on the coast, symbolically
breaking the Salt Laws.
 Salt production had geographical
limitations. So, in other parts of
the country, the movement
included-picketing of liquor
shops and auctions, no revenue
campaign in Bardoli, defiance of
forest laws in Maharashtra,
Karnataka and the central
provinces, refusal of chaukidari
tax in Eastern India,
prabhatpheris-singing of
National songs.
 The notable feature of the
movement was a wide
participation of women.
Spread of Civil Disobedience
 Peshawar under the leadership
of Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan
popularly known as The
Frontier Gandhi, the Pathans
organized the society of Khudai
Khidmatgars (servants of God)
known popularly as Red Shirts.
They were pledged to nonviolence and freedom struggle.
Indian National Movement
Page 24
Two platoons of Garhwali
soliders refused to open fire nonviolent mass demonstrations.
 North-East India Manipur
took a brave part in it and
Nagaland produced a brave
heroin, Rani Gaidilieu, who at
the age of 13 responded to the
call of Gandhi. The young Rani
was captured in 1932 and
sentenced to life imprisonment.
She was released only after the
independence of India.
Chittagong Armoury raided by
Surya Sen in 1930.
 DarshanaIt was led by Sarojini
Naidu, Imam Saheb and
Maniklal Gandhi.
 In Madras, Rajagopalachari
led a march from Trichirapalli
toVedaranyam along the
Coromandal coast. In Kerala,
K Kelappanmarched from
Calicut to Payannur.
 The government adopted
ruthless repression, lathi charges
and firing on unarmed crowd of
men and women. Over 9000
Satyagrahis including Gandhiji
and other Congress leaders were
imprisioned. Congress was
declared illegal. Meanwhile,
the British Government
summoned the First Round
Table Conference in London,
in 1930, to discuss the Simon
Commission report. But, the
National Congress boycotted the
conference and its proceedings
proved abortive.
 Dandi March was led by Gandhi
from Sabarmati Ashram.
First Round Table Conference
(12th November 1930 – 19th
January 1931)
 Congress boycotted the
 Muslim League was represented
by Mohammad Ali, Agha Khan,
FazlulHaq, MA Jinnah and
Hindu Mahasabha by Mooje and
 Tej Bahadur Sapru, Chintamani
and Srinivas Shastri (Liberals)
 Princes of Hyderabad, Mysore
attended it. No result came out
of the conference.
 The government now made
attempt to negotiate an
agreement with the Congress, so
Indian National Movement
Page 25
that it could attend the Round
Table Conference.
 Moderate stateman Jaikar,
Sapru and Srinivas Shastri
initiated efforts to break the ice
between Gandhiji and the
government. The negotiation
between Irwin and Gandhi in 5th
March, 1931 came to be known
Gandhi-Irwin pact or known
Delhi Pact.
Karachi Session (1931)
 It endorsed the Gandhi-Irwin
Pact. This Session is also
memorable for its resolution on
Fundamental Right and National
Economic Programme, with the
efforts of Jawaharlal Nehru and
Subhash Chandra Bose.
 Six days before this session,
Bhagat Singh, Sukhdav, Rajguru
were executed. (23rd March 1931)
Secound Round Table Conference
(7th September – December 1931)
 Gandhiji went to England in
September, 1931, to attend the
Second Round Table Conference.
But the British Government
refused to concede the basic
nationalist demand for freedom
on the basis of the immediate
grant of dominion status with
complete control over defence,
external affairs and finance.
 The Congress officially
suspended the movement in
1933 and withdrew it in 1934.
Gandhiji resigned from active
Poona Pact (Communal Award)
 On August 16, 1932, British
Prime Minister Ramsay
McDonald announced the
proposal on minority
representation, known as the
Communal Award.
Gandhi-Irwin Pact
 Under this pact, the government
agreed to release all those
political prisoners, who had
remained non-violent.
 The Right to make salt for
consumption was agreed to
 The Congress was to suspend
Civil Disobedience Movement
and take part in Second Round
Table Conference.
The first woman President of United Nations General AssemblyVijayaLaxmiPandit
The first woman chief justice of High Court-Leela Seth
Indian National Movement
Page 26
 Under this the depressed classes
(Muslims, Sikhs, Indian
Christians, Anglo Indians,
Women and Backward Classes)
were to be considered as a
minority, would be entitled to
the right of separate electorate.
Gandhi reacted strongly to the
proposal. He considered the
depressed class as the integral
part of Hindu society.
 He thought that there was no
need to protect the depressed
classes through representation,
rather the need was to eradicate
 Gandhi restored to fast unto
death in Yervada Jail against this
separate electorate for depressed
class, which Ambedkar was
insisting on. This resulted into
the Poona-pact between
Gandhi and Ambedkar on
25th September, 1932.
 148 seats were to be allotted to
the depressed classes in the
provincial legislature as against
71 provided by the Communal
Award. The pact also called for
adequate representation of
depressed classes in civil
 Gandhiji coined the word
Harijan for depressed classes
and their upliftment became his
prime concern. All India Anti
Untouchability League was
started in September, 1932. On
8th May, 1933 Gandhiji decided
to begin a 21 day fast for self
purification for the Harijan
 He started the Individual Civil
Disobedience on 1st August,
Impacts of Civil Disobedience
 The Congress swept polls in
most provinces in 1937. The left
parties emerged as an alternative
in politics.
 Some Congress activists formed
Socialist group.
 Nehru and Subhash Chandra
Bose emerged as leaders.
Third Round Table Conference
(17th November – 24th December
 Held in London in 1932.
Indian National Movement
Page 27
 The Congress did not participate.
 The British government, on the
basis of the discussion at the
three sessions, drafted its
proposals for the reform of the
Indian constitution, which were
embodied in the White Paper
published in March 1933.
 The discussion led to
Government of India Act,
Government of India Act, 1935
 The discussions of the Third
Round Table Conference and
Simon Commission report
eventually led to the passing of
the Government of India Act
of 1935. The act provided for
the establishment of an All
India Federation and a new
system of government for the
Provinces on the basis of
provincial autonomy.
 The Congress rejected the 1935
Act and demanded the
convening of a constitutional
assembly elected on the basis of
adult franchise to frame a
Constitution for independent
Second World War
 Lord Linlithgow declared India
to be at war without the prior
assent of the Central
Legislature. The Congress
Ministry resigned in the wake of
the war.
 Congress agreed to support
Britain only in return of
independence being granted.
The viceroy could promise this
only after the war. In OctoberNovember 1939, the Congress
Ministries resigned in protest.
The Muslim League observed
this as the Deliverance Day
(22nd December, 1939). The
Satyagraha was kept limited so
as not to embarrass Britain‟s war
effort by a mass upheaval in
 The viceroy refused to accept
preconditions set by the
Congress. (Constituent
Assembly for establishment of
Responsible Government at the
Center). But, the British
Government desperately wanted
the active cooperation of Indians
in the war effort. To secure this
cooperation, it sent to India in
Indian National Movement
Page 28
March, 1942, a mission headed
by a Cabinet Minister Sir
Stafford Cripps and before that
the August Offer.
August Offer (1940)
The Viceroy Linlithgow put forward
proposal that included-
 Dominion status in the
unspecified future.
 A post war body to enact
 Expansion of GovernorGeneral‟s council with
representation of the minorities.
 Establishment of a War Advisory
 Congress rejected this offer as
there was no suggestion for a
National government Muslim
League accepted it.
Individual Satyagraha
 Congress
rejected the August
offer because
Congress was
convinced that the
British would not
modify their policy the British
would not modify their policy in
India. Gandhi decided to start
the Individual Satyagraha.
 Vinoba Bhave was the first to
offer individual Satyagraha, by
15th May, 1941 and more than
250000 Satyagrahis had been
 Delhi Chalo Movement began.
Cripps Mission, 1942
Sir Stafford Cripps declared that the
aim of British Policy in India was “the
earliest possible realization of selfgovernment in India”. The British
Government‟s refusal of accepting
immediately the Congress demand was
the cause of failure of the mission.
Constitutional Proposal of the
Cabinet Mission
a) Dominion status to be granted
after the war.
b) Constitution making body to be
elected from provincial
assemblies and nominated by
the rulers in case of princely
c) Individual princes could sign a
separate agreement with the
Indian National Movement
Page 29
d) British would however, control
the defence for war period.
The British Government undertook to
accept and implement the Constitution
in two conditions.
 Any province(s) unwilling to
accept the Constitution could
form a separate union with
separate Constitution.
 The new Constitution making
body and the British government
would negotiate a treaty to sort
out matters arising out of
transfer of power to Indian
 Gandhi termed this proposal as
a post dated cheque in
crashing bank.
 Though, Cripps proposal failed
but it provided legitimacy to the
demand for Pakistan by
accommodating it in the
provision for provincial
Quit India Movement, 1942
 The All India Congress
Committee met at Bombay on
8th August, 1942. It passed the
famous Quit India resolution
and proposed to start off a nonviolent mass struggle under
Gandhi’s leadership.
 It is also called Vardha
proposal and leaderless revolt.
 Gandhi told the British to quit
and leave India in God‟s hand.
His message was Do or Die.
 Repressive policy of the
government and indiscriminate
arrest of the leaders provoked
people to violence.
 Nehru was lodged in Almora
Jail, Maulana Azad in Bankura
and Gandhi was kept in Agha
Khan’s palace, Poona. In
many areas, government lost
control and the people
established Swaraj. Parallel
governments were established.
 In Satara, Pratisarkar was set up
under Nana Patil and in Baliya
under ChittuPande. Others were
in Talcher and Bihar. In Bengal,
Tamluk Jatiya Sarkar
functioned in Midnapore.
 Underground revolutionary
activity also started by
Jaiprakash Narayan and
Ramanandan Mishra escaped
from Hazaribah Jail and
Indian National Movement
Page 30
organized an underground
 In Bombay, the socialist leaders
continued their underground
activities under leaders like
Aruna Asaf Ali. Congress radio
was established with Usha
Metha as its announcer and
Rammanohar Lohia in Bihar.
 School and college students and
women actively participated,
workers went on strikes. There
were no communal clashes
during the movement.
 The merchant community and
capitalist did not participate.
Muslim League kept aloof and
the Hindu Mahasabha
condemned the movement.
Communist party did not
support the movement.
Rajagopalachari also did not
Demand for Pakistan
 In 1930, Md Iqbal for the first
time suggested that the Frontier
Province, Sind, Baluchistan and
Kashmir be made the Muslim
state within the federation.
 Chaudhary Rehmat Ali coined
the term „Pakistan‟ (later
 The fear of Muslims to be
subjugated by Hindus in free
India was realized by Jinnah
and he demanded for the
creation of Pakistan.
 Pakistan Resolution Muslim
League first passed the proposal
of seperate Pakistan in its
Lahore Session in 1940 (called
Jinnah‟s Two-Nation theory). It
was drafted by Sikandar
Hayat Khan, moved by
FazlulHaq and seconded by
Khaliquzzaman. It rejected the
federal scheme envisaged in the
Government of India Act, 1935.
In December 1943, the Karachi
Session of the Muslim League
adopted the slogan-„Divide and
Gandhiji’s fast
(10th February-7th March,
Gandhiji undertook a 21 day
fast for condemning the
violence of the people during
the Quit India Movement.
Indian National Movement
Page 31
Rajagopalachari Formula (1944)
 Also
known as Rajaji
formula (1944).
proposed that a
could be appointed for
demarcating district in the NorthWest and East, where Muslims
were in absolute majority.
Plebiscite would be held on the
basis of adult suffrage, that would
ultimately decide the issue of
separation from Hindustan.
 If majority decides in favour of
forming a separate sovereign
state then such could be accepted.
 Jinnah objected this as he wanted
Congress to accept two-nation
theory and wanted only Muslims
of the North-West and East to
vote in the plebiscite.
 Desai-Liaqat pact reached no
settlement between the league
and Congress.
Shimla Conference or Wavell
Plan (1945)
 Proposed by Lord Wavell.
 Suggested to set up a new
executive council with only
Indian members.
The viceroy and
commander in
chief would be
the only nonIndian members
of the council.
 It would work under the existing
Constitution. But the door was
open for discussion of new
 Hindus and Muslims would have
equal representation. Jinnah
demanded the Muslim League to
have absolute choice in choosing
the Muslim members, so he
rejected the plan.
The Cabinet Mission
 The Attlee Government
announced in February 1946, the
decision to send a high powered
mission of three British Cabinet
members (Patrick Lawrence,
secretary of state for India,
Stafford Cripps, President of
the Board of Trade and AV
Alexander, first Lord of
Admiralty) to India to find out
ways and means for a negotiated
Indian National Movement
Page 32
and peaceful transfer of power
 The British bid for a united and
friendly India and they rejected
the demand for a full-fledged
 The Congress demanded that
power should be transferred to
one center and the minorities
demands be worked out in a
framework ranging from
autonomy to Muslim-majority
province to self determination or
 The plan failed on the issue of
the nature of grouping.
 Congress wanted the grouping to
be optional till the formation of
Constituent Assembly, but
Jinnah was in the favour of
compulsory grouping.
Jinnah’s Direct Action Resolution
 He was alarmed by the election
results of the Constituent
Assembly (Congress won 209 of
the total 273 seats) and was
afraid of being totally eclipsed in
the Constituent Assembly.
 On 29th July, 1946, Jinnah
withdrew his earlier acceptance
to the plan and fixed 16th August,
1946 as Direct Action Day.
Calcutta, Noakhali and
Garmukteshwar were the storm
centres. Jinnah celebrated
Pakistan Day on 27th March,
Interim Government (1946)
 Interim Government headed by
Jawaharlal Nehru was sworn
on in 2nd September, 1946.
 Muslim League refused to join
initially. Wavell persuaded the
league to join in October, 1946.
 The Constituent Assembly
begins its session in 9th
December, 1946 and Dr
Rajendra Prasad was elected its
President, but, the league did not
 Liaqat Ali Khan of Muslim
League was made the Finance
Indian National Movement
Page 33
Interim Government
Members Port folios held
Jawaharlal Nehru External Affairs and common wealth relations
Sardarvallabhai Patel Home, information and broad casting
Dr.Rajendra Prasad Food and agriculture
Jagjivan Ram Labour
SardarBaldev Singh Defence
C.H.Bhabha Works, Mines & power
Liaquat Ali Khan Finance
AbdeaRabNishtar Posts & Air
C.Rajagopalachari Education and Arts
Chundrigar Commerce
Ghaznafar Ali Khan Health
JoginderNath Mandal Law
Attlee’s Statement
(20th February, 1947)
 A deadline of 30th June, 1949
was fixed for transfer of power,
even if the Indian politicians had
not agreed by that time on the
 British power and obligations
vis-a-vis the princely states
would lapse with transfer of
power but these would not be
given to any successor
 Mountbatten was to replace
Wavell as the Viceroy.
 Partition of the country was
implicit in the provision that if
the Constituent Assembly was
not fully representative, than
power would be transferred to
more than one Central
Mountbatten Plan
(3rd June, 1947)
 As Viceroy, Mountbatten proved
more decisive and quick in
taking decisions than his
 His task was to explore the
option of unity of division till
Indian National Movement
Page 34
October, 1947 and then advise
the British government on the
form of transfer of power.
 3rd June Plan, in case of
partition, two dominions and
two Constituent Assemblies
would be created. The plan
declared that power would be
handed over by 15th August,
 The plan was put in effect
without the slightest delay.
 The Legislative Assemblies of
Punjab and Bengal decided in
favour of partition of these two
provinces. Thus, East Bengal
and West Punjab joined
Pakistan. West Bengal and East
Punjab remained with India.
Referendum in Sylhet resulted
in the incorporation of that
district in East Bengal.
 The referendum in NWFP
decided in favour of Pakistan.
 Princely states were given the
option to join either of the two
dominions for remain
 Boundary Commission was to be
set up if partition was effected.
 Mountbatten‟s formula was to
divide India, but retain
maximum unity.
 Punjab and Bengal Assemblies
would meet in two groups,
Hindus and Muslims to vote for
Indian Independence Act, 1947
 On 18th July, 1947, British
Parliament ratified the
Mountbatten Plan as the
Independence of India Act,
 The act provided for the creation
of two independent dominions
of India and Pakistan. Each
dominion was to have a
Governor-General to be
responsible for effective
operation of the act.
 Sovereignity of British power
was to be abolished.
Indian National Movement
Page 35
Integration of States
 Vallabhai Patel, played the most
important role in the integration of
states. Except Kashmir,
Hyderabad and
Junagarh, all states
signed an
instrument of
accession with
Indian Government.
On October 1947, the Pakistani
troops invaded Kashmir and in the
crisis, the Maharaja of Kashmir
acceded to the Indian Union.
 Through a referendum in the state
of Junagarh in February 1948,
Junagarh was merged in the
Indian Union. The Nawab left for
 Due to the pressure of internal
anarchy and military action in the
state, the Nizam of Hyderabad was
forced to join the Indian Union.
 Integration of French
Colonies Pondicherry,
Chandrangar, Mahe, Karaikal and
Yaman were integrated (by the end
of 1954).
 Integration of Portuguese
Colonies Dadra and Nagar Haveli
(1954); Goa and Daman and Diu
The first Indian woman to receive Jnanpith Award- Ashapoorna
Devi (Bengali Writer)
Indian National Movement
Page 36
ANNIE BEASANT (1847 – 1933)
 She founded
Society in
India and
started the
Home Rule League.
 She established Central Hindu
School and College at Banaras
(later BHU).
 She was elected the President of
the Calcutta Session of INC, 1917.
 She did not attend the 1920
Session at Nagpur due to growing
difference with Gandhiji as she
felt that government of India Act,
1919 were as means to free India.
 She edited famous Newspapers –
New India and Commonwealth.
 She prepared – The Lotus song, a
translation of Gita into English.
(1889 – 1956)
 He was a scholar, socialist,
nationalist and a lawyer by
profession. He gave up his
practice and joined NonCooperation Movement.
 He became the President of
Patna‟s Socialist Conference in
1934 and a member of UP
Legislation Assembly in 1937.
 He was appointed as the Principal
of Kashi Vidyapeeth in 1925 and
also became the Vice – Chancellor
of Lucknow and Banaras
Universities. He founded the
socialist Party in 1948.
The first woman to receive Nobel Prize- Mother Teresa
Indian National Movement
Page 37
ARUNA ASAF ALI (1909 – 1996)
 Nicknamed as ArunaGanguly, she
married to Asaf Ali, India‟s first
Ambassador of the USA.
 She was imprisoned during the
Civil Disobedience Movement
(1930, 1932) and for participating
in Individual Satyagraha (1940).
 In 1942, she hoisted the Indian
National Congress tricolor Flag at
Mumbai‟s Gowalia Tank Grounds.
 She was elected as first Mayor of
Delhi, 1958. She was awarded the
International Lenin Prize in 1964.
 Newspapers (alongwithEdanta
Narayana and AV Baliga) – Link
and Patrol
 He was
with the
 He
new English
school at Poona. He was the
editior of Maharatha in English
and Kesari in Marathi.
 He joined INC in 1891 and moved
an Arms Act Resolution.
 He celebrated the Ganapati pooja
and the Shivaji festival.
 He collaborated with Agarkar and
set up institutions to give cheap
education to people.
 He was constituted the tries Lal,
Bal, Pal an extremist group.
 He founded the Home Rule
League in 1916 and helped in
ushering the Lucknow Pact and
the Reforms Act at the Amristar
Congress in 1919.
 He demanded swaraj and gave the
slogan “Swaraj is my birth right
and I shall have it”.
 VoleintineShirol described him as
the Father of Indian unrest.
 He wrote the books,The Artic
Home of Vedas and Gita
BHAGAT SINGH (1907 – 1931)
 He was a member of Hindustan
Socialist Republican Army.
 He started the „Militant Naujawan
Bharat Sabha‟ in Punjab.
Indian National Movement
Page 38
 He killed British official Saunders
in 1928 and was involved in
Lahore Conspiracy and bombed
the Central Legislative Assembly.
 He was executed on March 23,
CHATTOPADHYAY (1833 – 1894)
 He was
great scholar
best known for
the composition
of the hymn
 His first novel was Durgesnandini,
published in 1864 and he started
the journal Bangadarsan.
 He was awarded with the title
Mightiest Prophet of Nationalism
by Aurobindo Ghosh.
 He supported Age of consent Bill
1891, Swadeshi movement and
fought for the cause of the Assam
 He started Newspapers –
Paridaashak (weekly); Public
Opinion and Tribune (editor);
Swaraj (English weekly in
London); Hindu Review (English
monthly); Independent (daily);
Democrate (weekly).
 He was a
politician and
lawyer from
Tamil Nadu.
 He gave
up his practice
during NCM.
 He held the post of the General –
Secretaryof the INC in 1921 –
1922 and was a member of
Congress working committee from
1922 to 1925.
 He hoisted the CDM in Tamil
Nadu and was arrested for leading
a Salt March from Thiruchirapalli
to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore
 He was elected as the Chief
Minister of Madras in 1937
 He resigned from INC in 1942 for
not accepting the Cripp‟s
Indian National Movement
Page 39
 He prepared the CR Formula for
congress – League Co–operation.
 He served as the Governor of
Bengal (August-November 1947)
and was the first and last Indian
Governor-General of India (1948
– 50).
 He became the Minister of Home
Affairs in the country‟s first
 He founded the Swatantra Party
in 1959.
 His rational ideas are reflected in
the collection SatyamevaJayate.
 He was awarded the Bharat
Ratna in 1954.
 He was the first
Indian to
demand Swaraj
in the Calcutta
Session of INC,
 He was also known as the Indian
Gladstone, Grand Old Man of
 He was first Indian to be selected
to the House of Commons on
Liberal Party ticket.
 He highlighted the draining of
wealth from India by the British
and its effect in his book Poverty
and un-British Rule in India
(1891 – 1956)
 Dr.Ambedkar was the great leader
of the depressed class and an
eminent jurist.
 He set up a network college in the
name of People Education Society.
 He founded the Depressed Class
Institute (1924) and
SamajSamataSangh (1927).
 He participated in all the three
Round Table Conferences and
signed the Poona Pact with
Gandhiji in 1932.
 He was in the Governor General‟s
Executive Council from 1942 to
1946 and organized the Indian
Labour Party and Scheduled Caste
Indian National Movement
Page 40
 He became the Chairman of the
Drafting Committee of Indian
 As the first Law Minister of the
Independent India, he introduced
the Hindu Code Bill.
 He started The Republican Party
in 1956.
 Towards the end of his life, he
embraced Buddhism.
 He participated in Swadeshi
Movement (established Bihari
Students Conference), Champaran
Satyagraha, NCM, CDM and Quit
India Movement.
 He founded the National College
at Patna.
 He was elected as the minister
incharge of Food and Agriculture
in the Interim Government
 He was the President of the
Constituent Assembly.
 He became the first President of
the Indian Republic. He was
honoured with Bharat Ratnain
 He edited the newspaper – Desh
(Hindi weekly).
(1886 – 1915)
 Gandhiji regarded him as his
political guru.
 He was the president of the
Banaras Session of INC, 1905.
Supported the Swadeshi
 He was the founder of the
Servants of Indian Society in
1905, to train people who would
work as national missionaries.
 He became the General Secretary
of INC in
1928 and
in 1929.
 The
Indian National Movement
Page 41
Independence resolution was
passed under his President ship at
the Lahore Session.
 He was the first Prime Minister of
Republic India (from 1947 to
1964) also known as Architect of
Modern India.
 He authored the Doctrine of
Panchseel and believed in the
policy of non-alignment.
 Books – The Discovery of India,
Glimpses of World History, A
Bunch of Old Letters, The Unity of
India, Independence and After,
India and the World, etc.,
 His autobiography was entitled as
KHUDIRAM BOSE (1889 – 1908)
 A revolutionary from Midnapore,
he participated in the Swadeshi
Movement and later joined the
Revolutionary Party of Bengal.
 He was arrested for organising a
bomb attack on the carriage of
Kingsford, the Session Judge at
Musaffarpur (Bihar) and was
sentenced to death.
(1890 – 1998)
 He was a great freedom fighter
and known as the – Frontier
Gandhi, Badshah Khan or Sarhadi
Gandhi, Fakhar-e-Afghan.
 He founded an organization of
non violent revolutionaries known
as Red Shirts or
 He participated in NCM, CDM
and Quit India.
 He was the editor of the
newspaper – Pakhtoon (In
Pushto), later published as Das
 He was honoured with Bharat
Ratna in 1987.
LALA HARDAYAL (1884 – 1939)
 A revolutionary from Delhi, he
took up the cause of India‟s
freedom to foreign land in order
to win international support for
the freedom movement.
 He was the first President of the
Ghadar Party founded in San
Franchisco in 1913.
 He founded the Indian
Independence Committee in
Germany and an Oriental Bureau
Indian National Movement
Page 42
to translate the writings in local
 Books – Wealth of Nations and
Hints for Self Culture.
LALA LAJPAT RAI (1865 – 1928)
 He was a courageous man so he
was called The Lion of Punjab
 He inspired by Mahatma Hans
 Being an Arya Samajist, he helped
in establishment of the DAV
College at Lahore.
 He withdraws his name from the
presidency list of the INC at Surat
 He was the President of the
special session of the Congress at
Calcutta, 1920.
 He opposed the withdrawal of
NCM in 1922.
 He founded Swaraj Party with
Motilal Nehru and CR Das.
 He was injured during a
demonstration against Simon
commission in 1928.
 He was the editor of the
Bandematram, The Punjab and
The People.
 Gandhi came to India in 1915. He
already had
Satyagrahas in
South Africa.
In 1907,
against compulsory reiteration
and passes for Indian. In 1910,
Satyagrah against immigration
restrictions, derecognition of NonChristian Indian marriages.
 He followed the Doctrine of
Facts about Gandhi
 Name: Mohan Das Karam Chand
 Mahatma (by Rabindranath
Tagore, 1917).
 Malang Baba/Nanga Fackir (by
Kabailas of North-West
Frontier, 1930).
Indian National Movement
Page 43
 Faqir (by Winston Churchill,
 Half Naked Saint (by Franq
Mores, 1931).
 Rashtrapita (by Subhash
Chandra Bose, 1944)
 Birth 2nd October, 1869 at
Porbandar in Gujarat.
 Mother – Putali Bai.
 Father – Karam Chand
 Political Guru – Gopal
Krishna Gokhale
 Private SecretaryMahadev
 Influenced by John Ruskin
(Unto the last); Le Tolstoy;
Thoreau; Emerson; the Bible;
the Gita.
 As an Editior
 Indian Opinion (1903 – 15) in
English, Gujarati, Hindi and
 Harijan (1919 – 31) in English,
Gujarati and Hindi.
 Young India (1933 – 42) in
English and Gujarati.
 Literary works
 Hind Swaraj (1909)
 My Experiments with Truth
(Auto Biography, 1927)
 The Champaran Satyagraha in
1917, against the Tin-Kathia
System led by Mahatma Gandhi
was his first success in India.
 The Ahmedabad Satyagraha
where there was dispute between
the mill owner and workers over
the “plague bonus” was also a
success. Gandhi then advised the
worker to go on strike and he
undertook hunger strike after
which the mill owners were
pressureised to accept the tribunal
award of 35 per cent increase in
 Kheda Satyagraha the peasants of
Kheda district were in extreme
distress due to the failure of crops
and the government ignored their
appeals for the remission of land
revenue. Gandhiji advised them to
withhold the revenue and fight to
(1890 – 1958)
 He presided INC during Swadeshi
 He was the President of Khilafat
Indian National Movement
Page 44
 He presided over the Congress
special Session at Delhi in 1923, to
become the youngest President.
Also the longest serving President
of INC.
 He headed the Nakiat-ul-Ulema
(1924), Nationalist Muslim
conference, Shimla conference
(1945) and negotiated with
Cabinet Mission, 1946.
 He was elected as the member of
constituent Assembly in 1946 and
became Minister of Education and
Arts in the Interim government.
 He was first Education Minister of
Independent India, also given the
portfolios of natural resources and
scientific reaserch.
 He contributed in the foundation
 He authored the book – India
Wins Freedom.
 She was a freedom fighter from
 She participated in the Socialist
Congress in 1907.
 She founded the Free India
Society and the BandeMataram.
(1861 – 1946)
 A moderate
leader and a
lawyer by
served the
provincial and
central legislature for many terms.
 Through his efforts memorial was
built at the JallianwalaBagh site.
 He founded the nationalist Party
in 1926. He was appointed as the
Vice-Chancellor of Banaras Hindu
 He served as the editor of
Hindustan, Abyudaya and the
Indian Union.
 BharathRatna, 2015.
JINNAH (1876 – 1948)
 He was inspired by the
ideas of Gopal Krishna
 In 1906, he signed a
memorandum against separate
electorates for Muslims.
Indian National Movement
Page 45
 Joined the All-India Muslim
League in 1913 and played a major
role in signing of Lucknow Pact.
 In 1917, joined the Home Rule
Movement of Annie Besant.
 His differences with Congress
began after the entry of Gandhiji
in Congress. He opposed the NCM
of Gandhiji.
 In 1929, he proposed his Fourteen
Point Demands.
 Lahore Session of Muslim League
(1940) passed the Pakistan
Resolution demanding for
separate state for Muslims.
Jinnah stuck to League‟s demand
in all the negotiations with Britain
and finally Pakistan was formed.
 He became the first GovernorGeneral of Pakistan.
– 1941)
 He was a poet,
and a patriot.
 He has his elder
brother, Satyendranath Tagore,
the first Indian to become an ICS.
 His first poem was published in
the „Amrit Bazar Patrika‟ and then
he wrote „Banaphul‟ (story) and
„BhanusinherPadavali‟ (series of
 He founded Shantiniketan near
Bolpore on December 22, 1901.
 He wrote Gitanjali, which fetched
him the Nobel Prize in 1913.
 He innaugratedRakshaBandhan
festival to oppose the Partition of
Bengal (1905).
 He founded the VishvaBharati
 In 1915, British Crown granted
him a knighthood which he
renounced after the
JallianwalaBagh Massacre.
 His compositions were choosen as
National anthem by two nations.
i. India – Jana Gana Mana
ii. Bangladesh – Amar shonar
(1897 – 1945)
 He passed the
Indian Civil
Examination in
1920 in England
Indian National Movement
Page 46
but left it on Gandhi‟s call of
 He founded the independence for
India League with Jawaharlal
 He elected as the President of INC
at its Haripura Session (1938) and
Tripuri Session (1939) but
resigned from Tripuri due to
differences with Gandhiji.
 He founded the Forward Block
(1939) and Kisan Sabha.
 He escaped to Berlin in 1941 and
met Hitler. He took the charge of
Indian Army (Azad Hind Fauz) in
1943 in Singapore and set up
Indian Provisional Government
 He addressed Mahatma Gandhi as
the Father of the nation.
 He supposedly died in a plane
crash in 1945.
 He gave the famous slogans –
Delhi Chalo and Jai Hind.
 The India Struggle was his
SAROJINI NAIDU (1879 – 1949)
 Popularly known as the
Nightingale of India, she was a
nationalist and poetess from Uttar
 She was married to
Dr.Govindarajulu Naidu in 1893.
 Under the
guidance of
Gopal Krishna
Gokhale, she
became the first
woman to participate in the
India‟s struggle for independence.
 She participated in the Dandi
March with Gandhiji and presided
over the Kanpur Session of
congress in 1925.
 She was the first woman to
become the Governor of Uttar
Pradesh, State.
 Her famous poetries include –
The Golden Threshold (1905), The
Feather of the Dawn, The Bird of
Time (1912) and The Broken Wing
VALLABHAI PATEL (1875– 1950)
 A freedom fighter and social
reformer from
Gujarat, he is
popularly known
as Sardar Patel
and honoured
with the title of
The Iron Man of India.
Indian National Movement
Page 47
 His father, Jhaverbhai Patel, is
supposed to have fought in the
army of Rani of Jhansi in the
Revolt of 1857.
 He started the Kheda or Karia
Satygraha in 1918 and fought for
the rights of the peasants in
Bardoli Satygraha. Here, he was
honoured with the title Sardar.
 He was the first national leader to
be arrested during the Civil
Disobedience Movement.
 He participated in Gandhi‟s
Individual Satyagraha and Quit
India Movement.
 Impost independence period, he
was appointed as the first Deputy
Prime Minister of India along with
the portfolios of the Information
and Broadcasting and Home
 He played a major role in
integrating the 562 states in the
Indian Union.
Indian National Movement
Page 48
Year / Place President Detail
1885 (Dec 28)
WC Bannerji 72 delegates attended
1886 (Dec 28)
Dadabhai Naoroji 436 delegates
1887 (Dec 27-28)
Badruddin Tyabji
(First Muslim
607 delegates, appeal to Muslim
to join
1888(Dec 28-29)
George Yule First British President
1189 (Dec 27-28)
William Wedderburn
1890 (Dec 28-29)
Pherozshah Mehta
1891 (Dec 26-27)
P AnandCharlu
1892(Dec 28-29)
WC Bannerji
1893 (Dec 28-29)
1894 (Dec 27-28)
Alfred Webb
1895 (Dec 28-29)
1896 (Dec 27-28)
1897 (Dec 22-29)
C Sankaran Nair
1898 (Dec 27-28)
AM Bose
1899 (Dec 27-28)
Ramesh Chandra Dutt Demand for permanent fixation
of land revenue
1900 (Dec 27-29)
NG Chandrasekar
Indian National Movement Page 49
1901 (Dec 27-28)
DE Wacha
1902 (Dec 23-26)
1903 (Dec 28-30)
Lal Mohan Ghose
1904 (Dec 26-28)
Hanry Cotton
1905 (Dec 27-30)
GK Gokhale Resentment against partition of
1906 (Dec 26-29)
DadabhaiNaoroji Word ‘Swaraj’ mentioned for 1st
1907 (Dec 26-27)
Rash Behari Ghosh Split in Congress into moderate
and Extermist
1908 (Dec 29-30)
Rash Behari Ghosh Constitution of Congress drawn
1909 (Dec 27-30)
Madan Mohan
Disapproval of separate electorate
1910 (Dec 28-29)
Sir William
1911 (Dec 26-28)
BN Dhar
1912 (Dec 27-28)
RN Mudhelkar
1913 (Dec 26-29)
Syed Mohammed
1914 (Dec 28-30)
1915 (Dec 27-30)
SP Sinha
1916 (Dec 26-30)
AC Majumdar Reunion of Congress and
Lucknow Pact
1917 (Dec 28-29)
Annie Besant First Women President
1918 (Dec 26-31) Delhi Madan Mohan
1919 (Dec 27-28)
Motilal Nehru Condemned JalliwanwalaBagh
boosted Khilafat Movement
1920 (Dec 26-31) C.VijayaRaghavacharia New Constitution of Congress
Indian National Movement
Page 50
Nagpur formed
1921 (Dec 27-31)
CR Das (Inprision)
Hakim Ajmal Khan
(Acting President)
1922 (Dec 26-31)
CR Das ‘Swarajya Party’ formed
1923 (Dec 28-31)
M Mohammed Ali
1924 (Dec 26-27)
MK Gandhi
1925 (Dec 26-28)
Sarojini Naidu First Indian Women President
1926 (Dec 26-28)
SS Iyenger
1927 (Dec 26-27)
MA Ansari Independence Resolution
adopted and to boycott Simon
1928 (Dec 28-31)
Motilal Nehru 1
st All India Youth Congress
1929 (Dec 29-31)
Jawaharlal Nehru Passed Poorna Swaraj Resolution
and launch of civil disobedience
movement accepted
1931 (March 29)
Vallabhai Patel Endorsement of Gandhi Irwin
Pact and resolution of
fundamental right
1932 (April 24) Delhi AR Seth
1933 (April 7)
N Sengupta
1934 (Oct 26 – 28)
1936 (April 12-4)
JL Nehru Congress to adopt socialism as its
1936 (Dec 27-28)
JL Nehru Session held in village 1st time
1938 (Feb 19-21)
SC Bose National Planning Commission
set up
1939 (March 10)
SC Bose Rajendra Prasad became
President after resignation of SC
Indian National Movement Page 49
1940 (March)
Maulana Azad
1946 (Nov 22) Meerut JB Kriplani
1948 (Dec 18-19)
P Sittaramaya
No Session 1930, 1935, 1941 to 45

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