Different Modes of Agitations Era of difference acts & Pacts

Regulating Act of 1773
 Changes in the constitution of the
Court of Directors (such as term
of the Directors, eligibility for the
right to vote, etc.) and subjection
of their actions to the British
 Government of Bengal to be
carried on by a Governor General
of Fort William and his Council of
4 members (Warren Hastings –
first Governor General of Fort
 The power of the Governor
General-in-Council to supervise
and control the Bombay and
Madras Presidencies in matters of
peace and war.
 Establishment of a Supreme Court
at Calcutta, with a Chief Justice
(first Chief Justice – ElijaImpey)
and three judges to administer
justice (both civil and criminal)
over all British subjects of Bengal
 Prohibition of receiving all
presents and bribes by the
servants of the Company.
Pitt’s India Act of 1784
 Establishment of a Board of
Control, consisting of 6 members
(called Commissioners), to
supervise and control the
Government of India.
 Giving to the Court of Directors
the right to make all
appointments in India and to
 Reduction of the number of
members of the Council of the
Governor General to 3 from 4 in
order to make him more powerful
and efficient.
 Clear-cut subordination of the
Bombay and Madras Presidencies
to the Governor General-inCouncil in all questions of
diplomacy, war and revenue.
Charter Act of 1813
 Throwing open the India trade to
all British subjects, though the
company’s monopoly of trade in
tea and trade with China was not
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 Providing an annual sum of
Rs.1,00,000 for the spread of
 It required the company’s
servants to undergo some training
in England before entering
Charter Act of 1833
 Completion of the introduction of
free trade in India by abolishing
the company’s monopoly of trade
in tea and trade with China.
 Renaming the Governor General
of Fort William as the Governor
General of India (William
Bentinck was the first Governor
General of India as well as the
Governor of Bengal Presidency).
 Inclusion of a Law Member in the
Council of the Governor General
(Macaulay – the first Law
 Abolition of the legislative
decentralization (i.e., the power of
different Presidencies to make law
for themselves) and giving the
Governor General-in-council the
power to make laws for all British
Charter Act of 1853
 Appointment of a separate
Lieutenant Governor for Bengal
and making Dalhousie the first
real Governor General of India
(i.e. without any additional
 Depriving the company (Court of
Directors) of its right to appoint
and recall officials in India, and
introduction of the system of
direct recruitment to the I.C.S.
through a competitive exam
(Board of Control was to, do the
 Inclusion of additional members
to the Governor General’s council,
which was to act as the Legislative
Council (total members – 12).
Government of India Act of 1858
 Abolition of the company’s rule
and beginning of the rule by the
British Crown.
 Abolition of the Board of Control
and the Court of Directors.
 Appointment of a Secretary of
State for India (who would be a
member of the British Cabinet)
who would rule India with the aid
of a Council, viz. India Council,
Indian National Movement
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consisting of 15 members. (Sir
Charles Wood, the last President
of the Board of Control, was made
the first Secretary of State for
 Making the Governor General of
India as Viceroy (Lord Canning –
first Viceroy as well as the last
Governor General of India) and
increased control of British Home
Government over the Viceroy
(through the new Secretary of
State for India) due to the
establishment of direct telegraph
Indian Councils Act of 1861
 Enlargement of the legislative
wing of the Viceroy’s council
(from now onwards known as the
Imperial Legislative Council).
 Introduction of the Portfolio
System (based on Lord Canning’s
rules of business) by which each
member of the Viceroy’s
Excecutive Council was put in
change of a department.
 Establishment of Legislative
Councils in various provinces like
Madras, Bombay and Bengal.
Indian Councils Act of 1892
 Introduction of indirect elections
for the non-official members of
the Imperial and Provincial
Legislative Councils: those of the
former were to be nominated by
the Bengal, Chamber of
Commerce and the Provincial
Legislative Councils: those of the
latter by certain local bodies such
as universities, district boards,
municipalities, etc. Retention of
official majority at both levels.
 The Councils at both levels were
to have the power of discussing
the budget (but not of voting) and
of addressing questions to the
Indian Councils Act of 1909 or the
Morley – Minto Reforms
 Introduction of an element of
direct elections in the Legislative
 Introduction of separate
electorate for the Muslims
(Communal Electorates).
 Enlargement of the Provincial
Legislative Councils and removal
of official majority in them.
The first woman Chairman of Union Public Service Commission-Rose
Indian National Movement
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 Retention of official majority in
the Imperial Legislative Council.
 Increase in the deliberative
functions of the Councils at both
 Still majority of the non-official
at both levels were indirectly
Government of India Act of 1919
or the MontagueChelmsford Reforms or
Montford Reforms
 Introduction of ‘Dyarchy’ in the
provinces; division of the
provincial subjects into ‘Reserved
Subjects’ (like police, jails, land
revenue, irrigation, forests, etc. to
be administered by the Governor
and his Executive Council) and
‘Transferred Subjects’ (like
education, local self-government,
public health and sanitation,
agriculture, industries, etc., to be
looked after by the Governor and
his ministers).
 Relaxation of central control over
the provinces through ‘Devolution
Rules’ which categorized the
subjects of administration into
two groups, viz, Central and
Provincial. (This devolution of
powers to the provinces should
not, however, be mistaken for a
federal distribution of powers for
by way of delegation from the
centre and not as constitutional
 Making the Central Legislature
bicameral (consisting of the
Council of States and Legislative
Assembly) and more
representative by removing the
official majority and increasing
the non-official directly elected
 The salaries of the Secretary of
State for India and his assistants
to be paid out of the British
revenues (hitherto they were paid
out of Indian revenues).
 Appointment of a High
Commissioner of India at London,
who was responsible to Indian
Government and paid by it. His
duties – to procure stores for
Indian government, to supply
trade information and promote
commerce, and to look after the
education of Indian students in
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Government of India Act of 1935
 Provision for the establishment of
an All India Federation to be
based on a union of the provinces
of British India and the Princely
States (It did not come into
existence since the Princely States
did not give their consent for the
 Division of powers into three lists
– Federal, Provincial and
Concurrent, Residuary Powers
with the Governor General.
 Provincial Autonomy –
Introduction of responsible
government in the provinces and
abolition of Dyarchy in them.
 Provincial Legislatures were made
bicameral, for the first time, in 6
provinces (Bengal, Madras,
Bombay, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and
 Extension of the principle of
separate electorates to Sikhs,
Europeans, Indian Christians and
 ‘Discretionary Powers’ of the
Governor General and the
 Establishment of a Federal Court
at Delhi (in 1937) with a Chief
Justice and not more then 6
The first Indian woman to climb Mount Everest- Bachhendri Pal
The first Indian woman Ambassador- CB Muthamma.

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