Birth of Political parties / Political System in Indian Since Independence

Political parties in T.N
S.No Name Abbreviation F o u n d a t i o n
Year States / UT
1. All India Anna Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam AIADMK 1972 Puducherry,
Tamil Nadu
2. Desiya Murpokku
Dravida Kazhagam DMDK 2005 Tamil Nadu
3. Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam DMK 1949 Puducherry,
Tamil Nadu
4. Pattali Makkal Katchi PMK 1989 Puducherry,
Tamil Nadu
5. Marumalarchi Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam MDMK 1994 Tamil Nadu

Populist schemes in TN
1967 – 1969
“Madras” State was renamed as
“Tamil Nadu”.
Act to provide legal status to the Selfrespect Marriages.
Two language formula providing for
Tamil and English.
Surrender of Earned Leave and
its encashment for Government
1969 – 1971
Nationalisation of Transport

ransport Corporations established.
Electricity to all the villages.
Link roads to all the villages having a
population of 1500.
Slum Clearance Board.
Drinking Water Supply and Drainage
Free Eye camps Scheme.
Beggars Rehabilitation Scheme.
Abolition of Hand-pulled Rickshaws and
free distribution of Cycle Rickshaws.
Free Concrete Houses for Scheduled
Castes and Tribes.

Act to provide conferment of ownership
of house-sites (Kudiyiruppu Act); Act
fixing fair wages to farm labourers.
Police Commission – First in India.
Separate Ministry for Backward
Classes and Scheduled Castes.
Constitution of the Backward Classes
Commission and increasing the
quantum of reservation for Backward
Classes to 31 percent from 25 percent
and for Scheduled Castes to 18
percent from 16 percent.
Free Education to all upto P.U.C..
May Day declared as a Holiday with
Birthday of “NabigalNayagam”
declared as a Holiday.
1971 – 1976
First Agricultural University at
Family Benefit Fund Scheme to
Government Employees
Confidential Reports on Government
servants abolished.
Free Housing Scheme to
“KarunaiIllam” in Temples for
Salem Steel Plant.
Land Ceiling Act, fixing 15 standard
acres as the ceiling.
Second Mine-Cut and Electricity
Scheme at Neyveli.
Petroleum and Industrial Chemicals
at Thoothukudi.
Small Industries Development
Corporation (SIDCO).
SIPCOT Complexes.

Inclusion of Urdu Speaking Muslims
in the list of Backward Classes, like
Tamil Speaking Muslims.
Abolition of Land Tax on dry lands.
“Manu NeethiThittam”.
Poompuhar Shipping Corporation.
“KonguVellalar” included in the list
of Backward Classes.
Green Revolution.
1989 – 1991
20 per cent separate reservation for
Most Backward Classes including
Vanniar and Seer Marabinar.
18 per cent separate reservation for
Scheduled Castes and 1 per cent for
Scheduled Tribes.
Free Education to Most Backward
Classes and subject to income ceiling
to Backward Classes upto Degree level.
Free Education to Scheduled Castes
and subject to income ceiling to
women upto Degree level.
Free Electricity to Farmers – First
time in the Country.
Law for equal property rights to women.
30 per cent reservation for women in
Government services.
First Veterinary and Animal Sciences
University – First in Asia.
Financial Assistance to poor girls for
Financial Assistance to Widows for
Financial Assistance to encourage
inter-caste marriages.
Direct Paddy procurement centres.
Incentive and payment of cart-hire
charges for procurement from farmers.

Indian National Movement
Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation
Financial assistance to pregnant
Wage hike for Government employees
on par with the Central Government
Employees with retrospective effect.
Women’s Self-Help groups benefiting
10 lakh women.
Manonmaniam Sundaranar
PavendharBharathidasan University.
Dr. M.G.R. Medical University.
Efforts to set up Cauvery Tribunal.
1996 – 2001
Within six months after assuming
office, elections for local bodies and
33 per cent reservation for women in
local bodies – by which 44,143 women
including 2 Women Mayors assumed
office; of the two Women Mayors one
belonged to SC community.
‘Madras’ renamed as ‘Chennai’.
Single window system for admission
in Engineering and Medical
Transparent New Industrial Policy.
Single window system for obtaining
all licenses for starting industries.
Improved roads, new bridges.
Concrete streets in villages.
Desilting of rivers, tanks and canals
in an unprecedented scale.
24 hour Primary Health Centres.
For the first time in India, MLA
Constituency Development Fund.
Protected water for all villages.

15 per cent reservation in professional
courses for rural students.
Periyar Memorial Samathuvapuram
Scheme to eradicate caste
Mini Bus Scheme for Rural areas.
Dr.Ambedkar Law University – First
in India.
Periyar University in Salem.
Tamil Virtual University to help world
Urdu Academy.
Minorities Economic Development
Chennai Film City named after MGR,
by changing the name “J.J. Film
Farmers Market Scheme.
Cattle Protection Scheme.
VazhvoliThittam in Schools.
133 feet high Thiruvalluvar Statue in
Tidel Park in Chennai.
Computer Training Scheme for
Government college students.
Over two lakh families given house
sites in poramboke lands, where they
were living in houses constructed.
Community Certificate, Nativity
Certificate, Income Certificate
on completion of 10th and 12th
standards from the year 1999-2000.
Scheme for grant of expenses of
higher education for first three rank
holders in State and District levels
in the 10th and 12th standard
examinations from the year 1996.

Indian National Movement
Bus Terminal at Koyambedu in
Chennai – Biggest in Asia.
Special Scheme for the economic
development of Southern districts.
Women’s Small Trade Loan Scheme
with saving scheme.
Separate Welfare Board for
agricultural labour.
Welfare Boards for
Manimandapam for Tamil Scholars
and martyrs.
Supply of eggs with nutritious meal.
Construction of over 20 dams.
New buildings for Collectorates in
nine districts.
For the first time Bench of High
Court at Madurai; Construction
of buildings for it and for courts in
various districts.
Free bus passes for students.
Anna Marumalarchi Scheme.
NammakuNaame Scheme.
Indigent Family Welfare Scheme.
Rs.104 crore new buildings for
Chennal General Hospital.
Reappointment of 13,000 welfare
For the first time 10,000 road workers
Nationalisation of the works of Tamil
Nine fly overs in Chennai.
350 electricity sub-stations (power)
at Rs. 1500 crores.
Pension scheme for contract labour.
Pension Scheme for transport

New Medical colleges at Vellore,
Tuticorin and Kanniyakumari
Tamil Virtual University.
2006 – 2011
1 Kg. of rice for 1 Rupee.
Distribution of palm oil, red gram,
black gram, suji, maida and fortified
wheat flour under Special Public
Distribution system at subsidised
10 items of provisions at Rs.50.
Cooperative loan of Rs. 7,000 crores
waived to benefit 22 lakh 40 thousand
and 739 families of farmers.
No interest on crop loan to farmers
who repay on time.
Enhanced procurement rice at
Rs.1050/- for common variety of
paddy and Rs.1100/- for fine variety
of paddy per quintal.
Renewal of 117 old UzhavarSandhais
and 45 new UzhavarSandhais.
Rs.2000 per tonne of sugarcane,
including transport charges and
incentive to sugarcane farmers.
Linking of rivers within the State :
Cauvery – Gundaru Linking Project
taken up at a cost of Rs.189 crores.
Tamirabarani – Karumeniyaru –
Nambiyaru Linking Project taken up
at a cost of Rs.369 crores.
UnorganisedLabour Welfare Boards
numbering 31 established, including
the Welfare Board for Agricultural
labour and enrolment of 2 crore 2
lakhs 21 thousand 564 members in
the Welfare Boards.

Indian National Movement
Disbursement of 616 crores 43
lakhs 44 thousand and 832 rupees
as financial assistance to 13 lakhs
6 thousand 492 members of the
UnorganisedLabour Welfare Boards.
Free house-sites to 1 crore 58 lakhs
8 thousand and 288 families.
Kamarajar Birthday celebrated as
“Education Development Day” in all the
schools – A Special Legislation enacted.
5 Eggs / Bananas per week with
Nutritious Noon Meal.
Free Bus pass to 24 lakhs 82
thousand school students and 2
lakhs 99 thousand college students
every year.
Common Entrance Examinations to
Professional Courses scrapped.
Tamil made a compulsory subject upto
10th Standard in all the schools.
Central Institute of Classical Tamil
shifted to Chennai from Mysore.
Kumbhabishekam and renovations
works carried out in 4724 temples
at a cost of Rs.523 crores; during the
current year Kumbhabishekam 1100
temples at a cost of Rs.100 crores.
10,000 cycles on an estimate of
Rs.277 lakhs, distributed to Archakas
and Poojaris free of cost.
Financial Assistance for marriages of
poor girls increased to Rs.25,000/-
from Rs.10,000/-.
Financial Assistance of Rs.6000/-
disbursed to each of 20 lakh 11
thousand 517 poor pregnant

A new Medical Insurance Scheme for
Government Servants for providing 2
lakhs worth of medical assistance in
a period 4 years.
Under “VarumunKappomThittam”
18 thousand 742 camps have been
conducted so far, benefiting 77 lakhs
5 thousand and 8 persons.
“NalamanaThamizhagamThittam” for
medical check-up to create awareness
in regard to heart disease, diabetics
and cancer.
Under Kalaignar Insurance Scheme,
2 lakhs 70 thousand 265 poor people
have got their life-saving surgeries at
a cost of Rs.702 crores.
Free 108 Emergency Ambulance
Scheme with the Central assistance has
benefited 8 lakh 8 thousand 907 persons
so far; Further, lives of 42 thousand 232
persons have been saved.
25 MoUs have been signed for starting
37 new industries on an investment of
Rs.46,091crores, which would provide
employment opportunities to about 2
lakh 52 thousand 569 persons.
Monthly doles totaling Rs. 240 crores
have been disbursed so far to 3 lakh 5
thousand 801 educated unemployed
New Employment to 4 lakhs 65 thousand
658 youth in Government offices.
Tidel Parks at Coimbatore, Trichy,
Madurai and Tirunelveli.
Monthly Maintenance Grant of
Rs.200 increased to Rs.500 for 10
thousand differently abled persons,
who are severely affected.

Indian National Movement
So far 4 lakhs 41 thousand 311 Self
Help Groups for Women have been
formed; Loan assistance of Rs.6342
crores has been given to these SHGs
so far.
Basic infrastructural facilities have
been created in 10 thousand 96 Village
Panchayats at a cost of Rs.2033
crores, under “AnaithuGrama Anna
Basic infrastrutural facilities
have been created in 420 Town
Panchayats at a cost of Rs.210
crores, under “AnaithuPeruratchi
Anna MarumalarchiThittam”.
Improvement and maintenance
works have been carried out on 57
thousand 787 kilometer long roads
at a cost of Rupees 12 thousand 94
4,945 Kilometer long roads have
been broadened and converted to
two-lane roads.
Local Cess, Local Cess Surcharge and
water charges have been scrapped.
A notional tax of Rs.2 per acre of dry
lands and Rs.5 per acre of wet lands
levied as a mark of land-ownership.
Without increase in tariff 12
thousand 137 new buses plying on
the roads; Further 300 new buses
being added.
3 per cent separate reservation for
Arunthathiyar Community.
Persons of any caste can become
Archakas in Temples – Legislation
enacted to establish an equitable

With a view to create a casteless society,
145 PeriyarNinaivuSamathuvapurams
have already been established; 95 new
Samathuvapurams are added.
World class Anna Centenary Memorial
Library at Kotturpuram-Chennai at a
cost of Rs.171 crores.
New Secretariat-Assembly Complex
in Omandurar Government Estate at
a cost of Rs.1200 crores.
Adyar Ecological Research Park
established at a cost of Rs.100 crores.
“SemmozhiPoonga” in the heart of
Chennai City.
Desalination of Sea Water Project at
Minjur, North Chennai.
Desalination of Sear Water Project at
Nemmeli, South Chennai.
Metro Rail Project at a cost of
Rs.14,600crores with the assistance
of Japan Bank for International
Hogenekkal Combined Water Supply
Scheme at a cost of Rs.1929 crores
with the assistance of Japan Bank
for International Cooperation.
Ramanathapuram – Paramakudi
Combined Water Supply Scheme at a
cost of Rs.630 crores completed.
TESMA and ESMA scrapped;
Concessions withdrawn from
Government servants and teachers
have been given back to them;
Recommendations of the 6th Pay
Commission have been implemented
with effect from 1.1.2006, on an
annual expenditure of Rs.5,155.79

Indian National Movement
Kalaignar Housing Schemes for
converting 21 lakh huts into concrete
houses in a period of 6 years.
Pension for Pressmen increased from
Rs.4000 to Rs.5000 and their family
pension increased from Rs.2000 to
First World Classical Tamil Conference
held at Coimbatore in June 2010.
119 new Courts have been opened;
Rs. 302 crores allocated for providing
infrastructural facilities in the Courts.
Action has been taken to reduce the
pendency of cases, by establishing
Evening and Holiday Courts, as per
the recommendation of the 13th
Finance Commission.
Anna Technical University at Trichy,
Madurai, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli
Rs. 331 crores allocated for filling
11,307 teacher vacancies and 648
non-teacher vacancies in GovernmentAided Minorities Schools.

Equitable Education being
One Man Commission has been
appointed for fixing the fee structure
in private schools.
The cradle baby scheme
Amma Scheme
Thai Scheme
Amma Salt
Amma Cement
Amma water
Amma Laptop
Amma Mobile
Amma Pharmacies
Ammamixi and Grinder
Amma Seeds
Uzhavar scheme
Amma vegetable shop
Amma Call Centre




India is a vast country with a huge
population. There are differences among the
people with reference to the culture, religion,
language, economic attainments and social
distinctions. In other words the population is
diverse in nature and therefore there cannot
be uniformity about anything. This applies to
the party system also. There are national and
regional parties in this country. In the next
few pages an account of the different political
parties of India is given.
National Parties
The Indian National Congress
The Indian National Congress is the oldest
and a dominant political party. It was founded
on December 28, 1885 by A.O. Hume. The
history of the Congress Party is the history of the
freedom struggle. It began more as a national
movement than as a political party. People
from all quarters rallied under the Congress
Party to realise the common goal of political
independence. It was a truly representative
body of the people. Hence, the British handed
over the country and power to the Congress on
August 15, 1947. Since then the Congress has
been in power for-about-50 years, except for
two short spells, at the centre. Until 1967 it was
in power in almost all the States in India. The
memorable leaders of the Congress Party are
Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira
Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, C. Rajagopalachari,
K. Kamaraj, P.V. Narasimha Rao and many
others. The Indian National Congress met with
many splits.
The Organisation of the Congress
The present constitution of the congress
party was designed at its Nagpur Session of
1. The highest body in the Congress
hierarchy is the All India Congress
Committee. Its total membership is
about 400. It holds annual and special
sessions of the Congress. It has wide
2. The next body is the congress Working
Committee. Its members are elected in
the All India Congress Committee itself.
This body is like a cabinet. The senior
most congressmen are normally elected
to this body.
3. There is a special body known as the
Parliamentary Board. It consists of
Indian National Movement
six members, including the Congress
4. Below the Congress Working committee
is the Pradesh Congress committee one
each for a state. This body has its own
president and other office bearers.
5. Below the Pradesh Congress Committee
arc the District Congress Committees,
one each for a district. Then there are
committees subordinate to it and
6. The Mandal Congress Committees. Any
person of 18 years or more can become a
primary member of the Congress.
The Communist Party of India (CPI)
The Communist Party is the second oldest
party in India. It was founded in the year 1924.
But soon after its formation, it was banned by
the British Indian Government. Consequently,
most of the Communist workers carried on
their work through the Congress. It remained
an unlawful organisation till 1943 when the
ban on it was removed because the Communist
Party supported the Second World War and
opposed the Quit India Movement of the
Congress in 1942. After independence, the
Communist Party of India consolidated its
position. Ears of corn and sickle is the symbol
of the CPI.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist)
The Communist Party of India was split in
the year 1964. The split was due to the schism
in the Sino-Russian relations. The communist
leaders had held differences of opinion in
their evaluations of the economic and political
situations prevailing in the country. Further,
one group of leaders desired to extend their
support to Nehru’s Government. But the
other group of leaders demanded tough
opposition to the reactionary congress. Theirideological differences reached a stage of no
compromise. Finally, the dissidents held a
separate convention of Ten ally in July 1964.
They got separated from the Dange group.
Leaders like Jyoti Basu, E.M.S. Namboodripad
and others formed a separate party, known as
the Communist Party of India (Marxist).
The organisation, major aims and policies of
the CPI (Marxist) resemble mostly to those of
the CPI. The principles of democracy socialism
and inner party democracy are the bases to the
party’s structure form the Branch upwards the
top. The branch is the living link with masses.
The CPI (Marxist) is convinced that India’s
revolutionary movement must follow its own
line of action. It believes that neither Chinese
nor the Russian model would suit India. The
symbol of the (Marxist) include a hammer,
sickle and star.
Differences in the ideologies of the CPI
and CPI (Marxist)
Besides certain common ideals and
programmes, the CPI and the CPI (Marxist)
have the following ideological differences.
1. The CPI (Marxist) considers that
revolution could be brought about in
India only by the leaders of the working
class. But the CPI holds that social
transformation can be achieved through
close alliance with other democratic
2. CPI (Marxist) believes in dislodging
the existing state and replacing it with
a State of People’s Democracy led by
the working class. The CPI supports
Indian National Movement
the 100 idea of forming a national
democratic front. It does not favour the
dislodging to the existing governmental
system. It holds that in course of time
the reactionary forces will be eliminated
and power may pass into the hands of
the party.
3. The CPI (Marxist) believes that the
ruling classes would never give up
power voluntarily. Hence it wants to
employ force out of necessity. But the
CPI holds faith in peaceful means. Its
aim is to transform the Parliament into
a genuine instrument of people’s will.
Bharatiya Janatha Party (BJP)
The old Bharatiya Jan Sangh is the precursor
of the Bharatiya Janatha Party. The origin of
the Jan Sang is linked with the origin of Hindu
nationalism in the 19th Century. In 1875
Swami Dayanand Saraswati founded the ‘Arya
Samaj’. It created a new spirit among the North
Indian Hindus. It also provided impetus to the
movement of Hindu revivalism. The new ideas
later formed the fundamental tenets of the
Hindu Mahasabha and the Jan Sang. In 1925,
Keshav Hedgewar formed Rashriya Swayam
Sevak Sang (RSS) as a cultural organisalion.
Its aim was to regenerate the Hindu Society.
Shyama Prasad Mukherjee formed the Jan
Sang in the year 1951 However, the Jan Sang
secured support of the members of the Hindu
Maha Sabha and the RSS. From 1952 to 1971
the party made steady progress.
Janata Dal
The Janata Dal was formed in October 1988.
Its notable leaders are V.P. Singh. Ramakrishna
Hegde. S.R. Bommai and Laloo Prasad Yadav.
The Janata Dal is democratic in Character.
Party organisation is similar to the Old
Janata Party. Anybody who believes in the
programmes and policies of the Janata Dal
can become a member of the party. But active
members in the Janata Dal must sign an oath of
loyally to the party. The executive body of the
Janata Dal is the Working Committee. There are
basic units from which the higher Committees
are elected. For any office of the party only an
active member can contest the election. There
are Committees at Block, District, Provincial
and National levels.
Regional Parties
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Regionalism in Tamilnadu began to be felt
since 1916. It was due to the dominance of the
brahmin community in the erstwhile Madras
presidency. They enjoyed several privileges
which were not available to the majority of the
population. It all started with the establishment
of a Dravidian Association by Thiru Natesa
Mudaliar and others in 1912. Subsequently
it was known as the Justice Party. It was
dravidian in its outlook and its objectives.
From this party the Dravida Kazhagam under
the leadership of Periyar Ramaswamy was
founded in 1944. It attracted the eminent leader
Thiru C.N. Annadurai to its fold. Dravida
Kazhagam was a social reform movement and
not a political party. As time passed on and
immediately after independence differences
brokeout between Thiru C.N. Annadurai
and Periyar Thiru E. V. Ramaswamy and the
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) was
formed by Annadurai on 17th September 1949.
From 1949 to 1957 the DMK served the people
Indian National Movement
only as a social organisation. The DMK had the
aim of establishing a separate Dravidanadu,
comprising the four southern states. But Anna
abandoned this ideology on 23rd October 1963
as then the constitution was amended to bar
separation. This was the turning point in the
history of the DMK. Rising sun is its symbol.
The party was turned into a political party
when it contested in the election for the first
time in 1957. It secured only a few seats in the
elections. However under the able guidance of
Thiru C.N. Annadurai and popular support
this party emerged victorious in the fourth
general election in 1967 to the Tamilnadu State
Assembly and formed government under the
Chief-Ministership of Thiru C.N. Annadurai.
Since then until now the dravidian parties only
win in the elections and form government. The
congress could not come to power. Since then
it has been contesting in all general elections to
the State Assembly as well as to the national
parliament. After the death of Thiru C.N.
Annadurai on 3rd February 1969, Thiru M.
Karunanidhi became its leader. Under his
leadership the party won in assembly elections
and formed the government also.
Emergence of AIADMK
Owing to differences Thiru M. Karunanidhi
as party President expelled Thiru. M.G.
Ramachandran from the primary membership
of the DMK in 1972. Subsequently MGR
launched his own party on 18th October 1972
and named it as Anna Dravida Munnetra
Kazhagam. After some time on 12th September
1976 it was renamed as All India Anna Dravida
Munnetra Kazhagam. MGR declared that his
party will follow the principles and policies
pursued by Thiru C.N. Annadurai. From the
beginning to the present the party is popular
with the people of Tamilnadu. Though MGR
died in December 1987 the party continued to
maintain its strength and support under the
present leadership of Selvi J. Jayalalithaa.
The basic ideology of the AIADMK is
“Annaism”. The essence of Annaism is mainly
the removal of poverty and untouchability. The
other contents of the ideology are self respect,
rationalism, socialism and social service. The
party also believed in achieving its objectives
through participation in elections to the state
legislature and the national parliament.
The first time the AIADMK faced an
election to the state assembly was during May
1973 in Dindigul parliamentary constituency.
It won the by-election by polling 52% of the
total votes polled. The DMK came third after
Congress (O) of Thiru Kamaraj. This election
was probably just an indication of a turning
point in the electoral fortunes of the major
Tamilnadu political parties.
Telugu Desam
It is like the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
a regional political party which was founded
by Thiru N.T. Rama Rao on 29th March 1982.
Thiru N.T. Rama Rao was a charismatic leader
who had acted in films in different roles.
Particularly he played in cinema as divine
hero. As a result he was demistified and
worshiped by people as God on earth. Soon
this party contested in the elections to the state
assembly and it won in the assembly elections
in 1983, 1985 and 1994. As chief minister he had
served the people of Andhra to help eradicate
Indian National Movement
poverty and raise their living standards. He
was succeeded by his son-in-law Thiru. N.
Chandrababu Naidu in 1995. He took several
steps to make Andhra Pradesh a forward
state. His contribution to the development of
information technology was so great that the
whole of India turned to him for model and
guidance. He and his party extended from
outside support to theGovernment formed at
the centre by Thiru. A,B. Vajpayee belonging
to the National Democratic Alliance which
was unseated from power in the 2004 general
elections to the Lok Sabha. During the same
time elections were also held to the Andhra
Pradesh state assembly in which the Telugu
Desam party was defeated in the election.
Indian National congress emerged victorious
and formed the government in May 2004.
Akali Dal: It is a religious cum political
party. It was formerly led by Master Tara Singh.
This party demanded a Punjabi speaking state
and Punjabi in Gurmukhi script as the official
language of the Punjab state. The Punjabi suba
of the conception of the Akali party came into
existence as a result of the reorganisation of the
state of Punjab into Punjabi-speaking Punjab
and the Hindi speaking state of Haryana in
Like other regional parties of significant
following the Akali Dal also contested in the
elections since 1967. This party in alliance
with such parties like Bharatiya Janata Sangh
or Janata Party or Bharatiya Janata Party
formed governments and guided the destiny
of Punjab.
The demands of the party mainly are
Chandigarh should be handed over to Punjab
and be made as its capital. There should be a
just and honourable agreement between Punjab
and Haryana for the disiribution of the waters
of rivers Ravi and Beas. And justice should be
done to Punjab keeping with the traditional
martial qualities of the Sikhs. There should be
equitable share of strength for the Sikhs in the
Indian army. The other minor demands of the
Akalidal are
1. Amirtsar should be given the same status
as Vatican city (Rome) and declared a
holy city.
2. Permission to carry kirpans by the sikhs
on domestic flights of Indian Airline.
3. Declaration of Punjabi as the second
language in Haryana.
4. Lastly transfer of management of the
Bhakra dam to Punjab.
It should be noted that the Akali politics
was at its peak in the early 1980’s. It upset
many a calculations of the government of India
relating to the governments of Punjab There are
still several unresolved demands of the Sikhs.
The other regional political parties worth
the name for their significant contribution to
their respective areas are, Assam Gana Thantra
Parished in Assam and National Conference in
Kashmir and the Plebiscite Front in Kashmir.
Conclusion: In what has been given above
with reference to national and regional political
parties is just a description of the organisation
and the objectives of those parties only.

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