Infrastructure in India

Infrastructural development means the development of many support facilities.
Infrastructure is a major sector that propels overall development of the Indian
economy. These facilities may be divided into (a)economic infrastructure- transport,
communication, energy, irrigation, monetary and financial institutions and (b) social
infrastructure includes education, training and research, health, housing and civic
Economic Infrastructure
Economic infrastructure is the support system which helps in facilitating production
and distribution. For instance, railways, trucks, posts and telegraph offices, ports,
canals, power plants, banks, insurance companies etc. are all economic infrastructure
of an economy. They help in the production of goods and services.
Why Infrastructure Development is necessary
1. For a massive country such as India, improvement in infrastructure is a
2. Target of 5 trillion economy.
3. Infrastructure development will generate growth, employment and pull people
out of poverty.
4. Infrastructure development will benefit Government’s Ease of Doing Business.
5. Developing Renewable Energy sector will help in mitigating climate.
6. Infrastructure investments can also help improve peace and security by
enabling, sustaining and enhancing societal living conditions.
For the sustained economic growth of a country, a well-connected and efficient
transport system is needed. India has a good network of rail, road, coastal shipping,
and air transport.

Roads are part of an integrated multimodal system of transport which provides crucial
links to airports, railway stations, ports and other logistical hubs and acts as a catalyst
for economic growth by playing a critical role in the supply chain management. India
has a road network of about 58.98 lakh kms as on 31 March, 2017 with rural roads
constituting 70.65 per cent and National highways constituting 1.94 per cent India has
one of the largest road networks in the world. Accounts for about 3.14 percent of GVA
and 69 per cent and 90 per cent of the country wide freight and passenger traffic
respectively. Major outcomes in Road sector during the period 2014-15 to 2018-19 were
construction of Eastern Peripheral Expressway, Delhi-Meerut expressway and DholaSadiya Bridge.
The history of rail transport in India dates back to 1832 at madras. India has a broad
network of railroad lines, the largest in Asia and the fourth largest in the world. Being a
cost-effective, long distant transport mode, provide safe, secure and comfortable
journey to passengers. Indian Railways Provide Wi-Fi Facility First in India is
Bangalore Railway Station. Indian railways has initiated a major electrification
program for electrifying 100 per cent of its Broad Gauge network also reduce the
nation’s dependence on imported diesel oil. Indian Railways has 35,488 Route
Kilometer (RKM) of network commissioned on electric traction. Swachh Rail, Swachh
Bharat’, mission focuses on cleanliness.
3.Water Ways:
Shipping plays a pivotal role in India’s Trade. Ports handle around 90 percent of EXIM
Cargo by volume and 70 percent by value. The ports including Calcutta, Mumbai,
Chennai, Vishakhapatnam and Goa are visited by cargo carriers and passenger liners
from all parts of the world. The National Harbour board was set up in1950 to advise the
Central and State Governments on the management and development of ports,
particularly minor ports. India’s first inland waterway multimodal terminal (MMT) at
Varanasi was inaugurated on 12 November 2018. The cargo traffic on National
Waterways was 55 million tonnes in 2017-18 and has increased by 31 per cent in 2018-

Comprehensive network of air routes connects the major cities and towns of the
country. The domestic air services are being looked after by Indian Airlines and private
airlines. The international airport service is looked after by Air India. Air India and
Indian Airlines were merged on August 27, 2007 to from National Aviation Company of
India Ltd. (NACIL). India’s scheduled domestic air transportation for passengers and
goods has grown by 14 per cent and 12 per cent respectively in 2018-19. Domestic air
cargo growth of 12.1 per cent in 2018-19.
Energy is one of the necessary components of our life. Nowadays, without electricity,
we cannot survive in this world of technology. The energy sources are classified under
two heads based on the availability of the raw materials used, while generating energy.
1. Non-renewable energy sources
2. Renewable energy sources
1. Non-renewable energy sources
The sources of energy which cannot be renewed or re-used are called non renewable
energy sources. Basically, these are the energy sources which will get exhausted over
a period of time. The examples of this kind of resources are coal, oil, gas etc.
1. Coal
Coal is an inflammable organic substance composed mainly of hydrocarbons. Coal
is available in the form of sedimentary rocks. It is used in the generation of
thermal power. It has close association with the industrial development of any
country. Since it is a valuable one, it is called as “Black Gold”. Based on carbon
content, it is classified in to the following types.
Anthracite: contains 80 to 90% carbon
Bituminous: contains 60 to 80% carbon
Lignite: contains 40 to 60% carbon
Peat: contains less than 40% carbon. Coal deposits are mainly confined to
eastern and south-central parts of the country. The states of Jharkhand, Odisha,
Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Telangana and Maharashtra
account for 98.26% of the total coal reserves in the country. The State of

Jharkhand had the maximum share (26.06%) in the overall reserves of coal in the
country followed by the State of Odisha (24.86%).
2. Lignite
Indian lignite (brown coal) deposits occur in the southern and western parts of
India particularly in Tamilnadu, Puducherry and Kerala. The estimated total
reserves of lignite as on 2018 was 45.66 billion tonnes.
3. Petroleum (or) Crude oil
Geographical distribution of Crude oil indicates that the maximum reserves are in
the Western Offshore (40%) followed by Assam (27%), whereas the maximum
reserves of Natural Gas are in the Eastern Offshore (38.13%) followed by Western
offshore (23.33%). The estimated reserves of crude oil in India as on 2018 stood at
594.49 million tonnes (MT) against 604.10 million tonnes on 2017. There was
decrease of 1.59% in the estimated reserve of crude oil for the country as a whole
during 2017-18 except for Arunachal Pradesh which has shown an increase of
14.3%. The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MOP&NG) is a ministry of the
Government of India.
4. Natural Gas
It is formed when layers of decomposed plants and animals are exposed to intense
heat and pressure over thousands of years. It is used as a source of energy for
heating, cooking and electricity generation. It is also used as fuel for vehicles and
as a chemical feedstock in the manufacture of plastics and other commercially
important organic chemicals. The estimated reserves of Natural Gas increased by
3.87% over the last year. The maximum contribution to this increase has been
from Arunachal Pradesh, and Rajasthan followed by Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
2. Renewable energy sources
These are the kind of energy source which can be renewed or reused again and again.
These kinds of materials do not exhaust or literally speaking these are available in

abundant or infinite quantity. Example of this this kind include Solar energy, Wind
energy, Tidal energy, Geothermal energy, Biomass energy.
Power Sector
Power sector in India has witnessed a paradigm shift over the years due to the
constant efforts of Government to foster investment in the sector. India improved its
ranking in the Energy Transition Index published by World Economic Forum 76th
position. The installed capacity has increased from3,44,002 MW in 2018 to
3,56,100.19 MW in 2019. The capacity of thermal power is 64 per cent followed by
renewable energy.
Fuel MW % of Total
Total Thermal 2,27,644 63.2%
Coal 1,95,810 54.3%
Lignite 6,260 1.7%
Gas 24,937 6.9%
Diesel 638 0.2%
Hydro (Renewable) 45,399 12.6%
Nuclear 6,780 1.9%
RES* (MNRE) 80,633 22.0%
Total 360,456
Communication is a process that involves exchange of information, thoughts and ideas.
Technology does wonders in communication fields.

Personal Communication
The exchange of information between the individuals is called personal
communication. It includes post and telegraph services, telephone, mobile phone, short
message services, fax, internet, e-mail etc. Personal Communication system enables the
user to establish direct contact.
1. Postal
The Indian postal network is the largest in the world with 1,55,000 post offices. Of
these more than 1,39,000 post offices are located in rural areas. The postal service was
opened to the public in the country in 1837. The first Indian postal stamp was issued in
1852 in Karachi. Collecting and delivering mail is the primary function of the
department of posts. It introduced the Quick Mail Service in 1975 and today it covers
the entire country. The Quick Mail Service functions on the basis of the system of PIN
(Postal Index Number) code which was introduced in 1972. The premium products
include the Money order, e-money order, Speed Post, Express Parcel Post, Business
Post, Media Post, Satellite Post, Retail Post, Greeting Post, Data Post, Speed Net and
Speed Passport Services.
India has one of the largest telecommunication networks in Asia. Apart from the urban
areas more than two-thirds of the villages in India have already been covered with
Subscriber Trunk Dialing (STD) telephone facility, while International communication
can be made through ISD (International Subscriber Dialing). Telephone is a form of
oral communication. It is considered very essential for the growth of commerce. It is
the most preferred form as it provides instant communication. Mobile phone, fax and
internet are the other personal communication used in the country.
Telecommunication has been recognized world-over as a powerful tool of development
and poverty reduction through empowerment of masses.
3.Mass Communication Systems
Mass Communication enables millions of people to get the information at the same
time. It is a great way to provide education as well as entertainment. It helps in creating
awareness among the people regarding various national policies and programmes. The

Mass Communication Systems can provide the information to people in two methods.
They are Print Media and Electronic Media.
4.Electronic Media:
Radio broadcasting in India was started in 1923 by the Radio club of Bombay. Since
then it gained immense popularity and changed the social and cultural life of people. It
was named as All India Radio (AIR) in 1936 and again it was renamed as Akashwani in
1957. It broadcasts a variety of programs related to information, education and
entertainment. Special news bulletins are also broadcasted on special occasions like
session of parliament and state legislatures.
Broadcasting has emerged as the most effective audio-visual medium for disseminating
information and educating the masses. Television network in India is known as
Doordarshan (DD) which started Common National Program (CNP) services and it is
extended to the backward and remote rural areas.
It is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet
protocol suite to link devices worldwide.
7.Social media:
It is an interactive computer-mediated technology that facilitate the creation and
sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual
communities and networks. With over 460 million internet users, India is the second
largest online market, ranked only behind China.
8.Print Media:
Newspapers are the most common but powerful means of communication come under
print media. India has many newspapers which carry information on local, national
and international events to the people.
9.Satellite Communication
The use of Satellite in getting a continuous and synoptic view of larger area has made
this communication system very vital for the country. Satellite images are used for

weather forecasting, monitoring of natural calamities, surveillance of border areas etc.
The communication through satellites emerged as a new era in communication in our
country after the establishment of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in 1969.
Satellite system in India can be grouped into two-the Indian National Satellite System
(INSAT) and the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite System (IRS). The INSAT,
established in 1983, is a multipurpose system for telecommunication, meteorological
observation and for various other programs. The INSAT series are used for relaying
signals to television, telephone, radio, mobile phone. It is also useful in weather
detection, internet and military applications. The INSAT series, GSAT series,
KALPANA-1, HAMSAT, EDUSAT are the major communication satellite used for
communication purpose. GSAT–7A is the recent launch (December 19, 2018) for
communication programs. INSAT-1B launched on 30th August 1983 is the first
communication satellite in INSAT series.
Priority to social infrastructure is stated as essentials to inclusive and sustainable
growth. Higher public investment in the social sector, including education and health,
is critical for India. India has made significant progress in quantitative indicators such
as enrolment levels and physical infrastructure like construction of school buildings,
drinking water facilities, toilet, etc. The quality of education also needs to be monitored
and assessed. India has been successful in achieving gender parity in the school sector
and in higher education it is moving towards a better gender parity. Growing
expenditure on health is burdening the public in general. Public investment in social
infrastructure has a critical role in providing access to social services for the people,
especially the marginal and vulnerable sections of the society. The expenditure on
social services by the Centre and States as a proportion of GDP 7.3 per cent in 2018-19
1. Education in India
Imparting education on an organized basis dates back to the days of ‘Gurukul’ in India.
Since then the Indian education system has flourished and developed with the growing
needs of the economy. The Ministry & Human Resource Development (MHRD) in
India formulates education policy in India and also undertakes education programs.
General education of youth has improved to 65.4 per cent for urban females and 65.8

per cent for urban males providing primary education has yielded results across social
categories and gender in Gross Enrolment Rate (GER).
2. Education system in India
Education in India until 1976 was the responsibility of the State governments. It was
then brought under concurrent list (both Centre and State). The Centre is represented
by the Ministry of Human Resource Development decides the India’s education budget.
The education system in India consists of primarily six levels:
1. Nursery Class
2. Primary Class
3. Secondary Level
4. Higher Secondary Level
5. Graduation
6. Post-Graduation
3. Education Institutions in India:
Education in India follows the 10+2 pattern. For higher education, there are various
State run as well as private institutions and universities providing a variety of courses
and subjects. The accreditation of the universities is decided. Under the University
Grant Commission Act. The Education Department consists of various schools, colleges
and universities imparting education on fair means for all sections of the society. The
budget share of the education sector is around 3% of GDP, of this largest proportion
goes for school education. However, per pupil expenditure is the lowest for school
1. Health in India
Health in India is a state government responsibility. The Central Council of Health and
Welfare formulates the various health care projects and health department reform
policies. The administration of health industry in India as well as the technical needs of
the health sector are the responsibility of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. A healthy
productive population is an enabler for sustainable development and hence it is critical
that the Government remains committed to improve public health delivery, reduce
health inequities and ensure affordable health care for all.

Form of Health care in India
1. Ayurvedic medicine practice,
2. Unani or galenic herbal care,
3. Homeopathy,
4. Allopathy,
5. Yoga.
Each different healthcare form has its own treatment system and practice patterns. The
medical practicing in India needs a proper licensing from the Ministry of Health. All
medical systems are now under one ministry viz AYUSH.
2. Health Care Services in India:
The health care services in India are mainly the responsibility of the Ministry of Health.
State wise, health status is better in Kerala as compared to other States.
1. Strengthening & Modernization of Pest Management Approach in India
1. Maximize crop production with minimum input costs.
2. Minimize environmental pollution in soil, water and air due to pesticides.
3. Minimize occupational health hazards due to chemical pesticides.
4. It is a central sector scheme launched with following component so Integrated
Pest Management (IPM) – It is environment friendly broad ecological approach
for managing pest problems.
Salient Features
1. Locust Control and Research – under this locust warning organizations
have been established to monitor, forewarn and control locust in Scheduled
Desert Area (of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Haryana) and to conduct research on
locust and grasshoppers.
2. Implementation of Insecticides Act, 1968 – It regulates the import,
manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of insecticides with a view to
prevent risk to human beings, animals and environment.

3. Implementing Agency – 35 Central Integrated Pest Management Centres
2. Mera Gaon-Mera Gaurav
To promote direct interface of scientists with the farmers.
Salient features
1. This scheme involves scientists of the Indian Council of Agriculture Research
(ICAR) and state agricultural universities.
2. Groups of four multidisciplinary scientists each will be constituted at these
institutes and universities. Each group will “adopt” five villages within a radius
of maximum 100 km.
3. Under this scheme, scientists will select villages as per their convenience and will
remain in touch with the selected villages and provide information to the
farmers on technical and other related aspects in a time frame.
3. DARPAN (Digital Advancement of Rural Post Office for A New India)
1. It aims to improve the quality of service and achieve “financial inclusion” of unbanked rural population.
2. As part of IT modernization project, it intends to provide a low power technology
solution to each Branch Postmaster (BPM) which will enable 1.29 Rural Lakhs
Branch Post Offices (BOs).
3. Recently, DARPAN-PLI application was launched for seamless collection of
premium for Postal Life Insurance (PLI) and Rural Postal Life Insurance (RPLI)
4.Sampoorna Bima Gram Yojana
1. It aims to provide affordable life insurance services to people living in rural areas
of the country through the postal network.
2. It will identify at least one village (having a minimum of 100 households) in each
of the revenue districts of the country and cover all households with a minimum
of one RPLI (Rural Postal Life Insurance) policy.

3. All villages under Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana would also be covered under the
scheme to turn them into Sampoorna Beema Gram.
5. North East Road Sector Development Scheme
Objective is to take up rehabilitation/construction/upgradation of neglected inter-state
roads (including bridges on the roads) in the North Eastern Region.
Other criteria of roads to be constructed under the scheme are;
1. Roads in socio-politically neglected pockets of NER.
2. Roads required for security or strategic viewpoint, not covered in any other
3. Roads necessary from the viewpoint of market access for agriculture produce
and roads of economic importance on gap filling approach.
4. The Scheme will be administered and monitored in the Ministry of DoNER
through an Empowered Inter-Ministerial Committee under chairmanship of
Secretary, DoNER.
6. Digital India
To transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy.
Salient features
1. The Digital India programme is centred on three key vision areas: Digital
Infrastructure as a Utility to Every Citizen, Governance & Services on Demand,
Digital Empowerment of Citizens
2. It aims to provide the much-needed thrust to the nine pillars of growth areas,
a) Broadband Highways,
b) Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity,
c) Public Internet Access Programme,
d) e-Governance:
e) Reforming Government through Technology,
f) e-Kranti: NeGP 2.0,
g) Information for All,
h) Electronics Manufacturing,
i) IT for Jobs, Early Harvest Programmes.

3. Public Private Partnerships would be preferred wherever feasible to implement
e- Governance projects.
4. For effective management of the Digital India programme, the programme
management structure would consist of a Monitoring Committee on Digital
India headed by the Prime Minister, a Digital India Advisory Group chaired by
the Minister of Communications and IT and an Apex Committee chaired by the
Cabinet Secretary.
5. The positions of Chief Information Officers (CIO) would be created in at least 10
key Ministries so that various e-Governance projects could be designed,
developed and implemented faster.
6. In order to take the benefits of Digital India to every corner of country, a vast
network of more than 2.5 lakh Common Services Centers have been created.
This has developed digital entrepreneurs among poor, marginalized, Dalits and
women of India.
7. Bharat Interface For Money (BHIM)
To enable fast, secure, reliable cashless payments through your mobile phone.
Salient features
1. It is an app that makes payment transactions simple, easy and quick using
Unified Payments Interface (UPI). It enables direct bank to bank payments
instantly and collect money using Mobile number, Bank a/c and IFSC code,
Aadhaar number or Virtual Payment Address (VPA).
2. It is developed by the National Payment Corporation of India (NPCI), a not for
profit company for providing retail payment systems in India under guidance
from RBI.
3. It is interoperable with other Unified Payment Interface (UPI) applications, and
bank accounts.
4. BHIM-Aadhaar platform is the merchant interface of the BHIM App that has
been launched for making digital payments using the Aadhaar platform. Any
citizen without access to smart phones, internet, debit or credit cards will be able
to transact digitally through the BHIM Aadhaar platform.

1. Explain transportation systems of India briefly.

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