Tamil Nadu Economy and Issues

Tamil Nadu is geographically eleventh largest and population wise third largest. Tamil
Nadu fares well with many achievements. It has been ranked as the most economically
free state by the Economic Freedom. In the social and health sector also Tamil Nadu’s
performance is better than many other states and better than national average in terms
of health, higher education, IMR and MMR.
Tamil Nadu is the second largest economy in India with a GSDP of $ 207.8 billion in
2016-17 according to the Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Tamil Nadu. The GSDP
of Tamil Nadu is far higher compared to many countries as shown below. This is mainly
due to population effect. Per capita GSDP would be better for intercountry or interstate
comparisons. Agriculture occupies a prominent position in occupation but its
contribution to GSDP is declining and now it is just 7.76%. The secondary sector
(Industry) contribution is gradually on the rise and now it is 28.5%. The tertiary sector
(service sector) is the major contributor to Tamil Nadu’s GSDP at 63.70%.
The Per capita GSDP of Tamil Nadu also ($ 2,200) which is higher than that of many
other States in India. Per capita GSDP of Tamil Nadu is nearly 1.75 times higher than the
national average, as per 2018 data. In term of the per capita income in Tamil Nadu was
1,03,600 in 2010-11 and it has increased to 1,88,492 in 2017-18
1. Growth of SGDP in Tamil Nadu has been among the fastest in India since 2005.
2. Poverty reduction in Tamil Nadu has been faster than that in many other States.
3. Tamil Nadu contains a smaller proportion of India’s poor population.
4. Tamil Nadu is the second largest contributor to India’s GDP.
5. Tamil Nadu ranks 3rd in Human Development Index.
6. Tamil Nadu ranks 3rd in terms of invested capital (₹2.92 lakh crore) and value of
total industrial output (₹6.19 lakh crore).

7. Tamil Nadu ranks first among the states in terms of number of factories with 17%
share and industrial workers (16% share) of the country.
8. Tamil Nadu is placed third in health index as per the NITI AAYOG report.
9. Tamil Nadu has a highest Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education.
10. Tamil Nadu has the largest number of engineering colleges
11. Tamil Nadu has emerged as a major hub for renewable energy.
12. Tamil Nadu has highest credit Deposit Ratio in commercial and Cooperative
13. Tamilnadu has highest ranks first on investment proposals filed by MSMEs.
1. Population
Tamil Nadu stands sixth in population with 7.21 crore against India’s 121 crore as per
2011 census. However, Tamil Nadu’s population is higher than that of several countries
according to UN Report.
2. Density
The density of population which measures population per sq.km is 555 (2011) against
480 (2001). Tamil Nadu ranks 12th in density among the Indian States and overall it is
382 for India.
3. Urbanisation
Tamil Nadu is the most urbanized state with 48.4% of urban population against 31.5%
for India as a whole. The State accounts for 9.61% of total urbanites in India against 6%
share of total population.
4.Sex ratio (Number of female per 1000 males)
Sex Ratio in Tamil Nadu is 996 i.e. for each 1000 male, which is above national average
of 940 Tamil Nadu stands third next only to Kerala state and Puducherry Union
Territory in sex ratio.
5. Infant Mortality Rate
mortality before completing 1-year Tamil Nadu is well ahead of national average and
other states in IMR. According to NITI AAYOG, the IMR is 17 (per 1000) for Tamil Nadu
which is just half of national average of 34 as on 2016.

6.Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR)
Mother’s death at the time of delivery per 1 lakh Tamil Nadu has a good record of
controlling MMR, ranking third with 79 (Kerala 61, Maharashtra 67) against national
average of 159 again half of the national average.
7. Life Expectancy at birth
The average period that a person may expect to live is called life expectancy. However,
life expectancy in India still falls short of most developed and developing nations.
The literacy rate of Tamil Nadu is higher than in many States. The Literacy rate in Tamil
Nadu has seen upward trend and is 80.09% as per 2011 population census. Of that, male
literacy stands at 86.77%, while female literacy is at 73.44%. Average Literacy rate in
Tamil Nadu for Urban regions was 87.04 percent in which males were 91.80% literate
while female literacy stood at 82.31%. rural areas of Tamil Nadu, literacy rate for males
and female stood at 82.04 % and 64.55 %. Average literacy rate in Tamil Nadu for rural
areas was 73.54 percent.
The state of Tamil Nadu is the Southernmost state in the Indian Union located between
8º5’ and 13º 35’ N latitude and 76º15’ and 80º20’ E longitudes. Agriculture is socially,
economically and culturally entwined with the lives of people of Tamil Nadu.
Agriculture cannot be easily dispensed with as it is the key component of economic
growth and development. Agriculture is undergoing perceptible changes as it gets
transformed from a traditional to modern economy which is an important step towards
economic development. Agriculture is the prime driving force for food security, rural
economy and sustainable socio-economic development of farmers. Agriculture, as a
productive sector provides a pathway out of poverty and has an important macroeconomic role upon which diverse economies are built. A faster growing agriculture
sector alone can increase the agricultural production, raise the per-capita income of the
rural community, generate consumer demand driven commodity surplus to promote
various agro-processing industries, create avenues for localized employment, slowing
down migration towards urban areas, create domestic demand for industrial goods and
services and increase exports.

1. Strengthen institutional mechanisms for integrated policy, planning, monitoring
and evaluation.
2. Ensure conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
3. Formulate and popularize appropriate agroclimatic and eco-friendly farming
systems which would improve soil health and intensify crop productivity and farm
4. Increase the income of farmers through agricultural diversification towards high
value farming, while retaining the core-competence in area of food crops and
nutritional security.
5. To develop infrastructure facilities in sectors of seeds, fertilizers, pesticides,
agriculture implements, extension services, value addition and marketing across
the agricultural supply chain.
6. Facilitate adaptation and mitigation to climate change through effective
implementation of prescribed framework.
Threads in agriculture
Agriculture and food production systems are increasingly vulnerable
1. To burgeoning population,
2. climate variability,
3. environmental degradation,
4. dwindling production resources,
5. rising input costs,
6. labour scarcity and volatile market prices.
7. Net sown area has been gradually declining;
8. Rural land, labour and capital are moving towards urban projects. villages are
emptied and cities are over-crowded and congested, leading to spatially
unbalanced bulging.
Government of Tamil Nadu to tide over these challenges has set smart short term to long
term Sustainable Development Goals to attain the ambitious plan of making Agriculture
a vibrant growth engine to achieve food security and improve nutrition by 2023 A.D.

Comprehensive Policy Framework for Achieving Second Green Revolution
1. To increase cropped area;
2. Fostering innovative crop-specific agricultural practices to improve farm
productivity and farmers income;
3. Designing robust infrastructure to transform the existing livelihood farming into
a commercial and dynamic farming system;
4. Mechanising agricultural operations to make farming smarter by saving time and
5. Enriching farming knowledge and empowering farming community through use
of ICT;
6. Establishing well-structured marketing system and strengthening extension
services for large-scale dissemination of productivity – increasing technologies,
capacity building and supplying critical inputs for permeating agriculture even in
the most challenged topography.
Agro climatic regions of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu Government that leaves no stone unturned for uplifting the economic status
of farmers has conceived agriculture –demand led –industrialization strategy to increase
the agricultural productivity so as to expand the internal demand for intermediate and
consumer goods which would generate higher income for the farmers. Tamil Nadu State
has been classified into seven distinct agro-climatic zones based on rainfall distribution,
irrigation pattern, soil characteristics, cropping pattern and other physical, ecological
and social characteristics including administrative divisions.
Sl. No
Zone Districts Soil Types
North Eastern
Kancheepuram, Tiruvallur,
Cuddalore, Vellore and
Red sandy loam, clay
loam, saline coastalalluvium
Northern Western
Dharmapuri, Salem and
Non-Calcareousred, noncalcareous brown,
calcareous black

Western Zone Erode, Coimbatore,
Tiruppur, Karur,
Namakkal, Dindigul and
Red loam, black
Cauvery Delta
Trichy, Perambalur,
Pudukkottai, Thanjavur,
Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur
and Part of Cuddalore
Red loam, alluvium
South Zone Madurai, Sivaganga,
Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli
and Thoothukudi
Coastal alluvium, black,
red sandy soil, deep red
6 Hugh Rainfall
Kanniyakumari Saline coastal alluvium,
deep red loam
7 Hill Zone The Nilgiris and
Kodaikanal (Dindigul)
Soil Coverage
1. The State can broadly be divided into three major physiographic divisions and 10
land forms. The climate is Semi-arid in the plains and humid to Sub-humid in the
hills with annual rainfall from 750 mm in some parts of the plains to over 2400
mm in the high hills.
2. In all 94 soil families, classified into six orders. Soil depth is not a limiting factor
for crop growth in Tamil Nadu (14% shallow and very shallow soils of a TGA of the
state). The texture of soils of Tamil Nadu covers a wide range from sand to clay
(18% sandy surface 53% loamy and 22% clay).
3. The soil drainage is not a major problem for crop production in the state (14%
poorly to imperfectly drained soils, 64% moderately drained to well drained soil
and 15% of TGA excessively drained soils). The total area of 12.96 million has red
soil occupied a major area of 61%, black soil 12%, alluvial soil 20% and laterite
intermit soil 3%. Out of the 6.56 m.ha cultivated area about 6.7 lakh hectares have
been affected by soil salinity. Tamil Nadu, with seven agro climatic zones and
varied soil types is better suited for the production of fruits, vegetables, spices,
plantation crops, flowers and medicinal plants.

The State is the largest producer of loose flowers and the third largest producer of fruits.
At present, Tamil Nadu is the India’s second biggest producer of rice, next only to West
Bengal. The state is one of the major producers of turmeric. It is also the leading producer
of Kambu, Corn, Groundnut, Oil seeds and Sugarcane. It ranks first in production of
plantation crops and banana and coconut, second in rubber and cashew nut, third in
pepper and fourth in sugarcane. The gross cropped area under all crops was 58.97 lakh
hectares in the year 2013-14. The area under food crops account for 72.9% and that of
non-food crops is 27.1%. Among the food crops paddy takes a major share. Among the
non-food crops, groundnut and coconut take a major share.
Zone Districts Soil Types
North Eastern Zone Kancheepuram, Tiruvallur,
Cuddalore, Vellore and
Red sandy loam, clay
loam, saline coastalalluvium
Northern Western
Dharmapuri, Salem and
non-calcareous brown,
calcareous black
Western Zone Erode, Coimbatore, Tiruppur,
Karur, Namakkal, Dindigul
and Theni
Red loam, black
Cauvery Delta Zone Trichy, Perambalur,
Pudukkottai, Thanjavur,
Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur and
Part of Cuddalore
Red loam, alluvium
South Zone Madurai, Sivaganga,
Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli
and Thoothukudi
Coastal alluvium, black,
red sandy soil, deep red
6 Hugh Rainfall Zone Kanniyakumari Saline coastal alluvium,
deep red loam
7 Hill Zone The Nilgiris and Kodaikanal

The industrial sector is a driver of economic growth. Industrial sector is important in
terms of its contribution to Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) and employment. This
sector which is vital in stimulating growth of the economy is closely interconnected with
primary and tertiary sectors through its forward and backward linkages. Today, Tamil
Nadu has emerged as the Second largest state economy following Maharashtra which
has a much larger area and population. Tamil Nadu is ranked first among Indian states
in terms of exporting and operational SEZs. Tamil Nadu is ranked first among Indian
states in terms of quantum of exports from Special Economic Zones. Vision Tamil Nadu
2023 envisages an investment of Rs.15 lakh crore being invested in the State before the
year 2023.This includes investment in projects falling under manufacturing,
infrastructure and services sectors.
Tamil Nadu Industrial Investment Corporation Ltd. (TIIC):
TIIC is a premier State Financial Corporation established in the year 1949.TIIC is the
first State level financial corporation in the country catering to the needs of MSMEs,
especially first generation entrepreneurs. It also provides financial support to major
industrial units in the State. Portion of financial support by the TIIC in recent years is
given to Sugar, Cement, Textile, Textile Machinery and Aluminum Industries. It has its
role in promotion of Industrial Clusters like Hosiery in Tiruppur, Textiles and Foundries
in Coimbatore, Sericulture and Sago in Salem and Dharmapuri, wind mills in Tirunelveli,
Palladam, Udumalpet etc.
Tamil Nadu Small Industries Development Corporation Ltd. (TANSIDCO) :
TANSIDCO was established with the main objective of assisting and promoting the
interests of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises in the State. Its Vision is “to forge
sustainable partnership with the MSMEs for enhancing their competitiveness” in the
market structures. To achieve the Vision, SIDCO is also taking pro-active steps towards
the development of Industrial Estates and Associated Social Infrastructure, Promotion
of Cluster and Common Facility Centres for MSMEs. Further, it is rendering its help in
purchasing of industrial inputs and provides best managerial and manufacturing
practices, acquire capital and assist in marketing of manufactured products for MSMEs
in the State Currently, SIDCO is maintaining 35 Industrial Estates created by

Government of Tamil Nadu and 59 Industrial Estates established on its own. Two
Industrial Estates were set up each one at Rasathavalasu (Tiruppur district) and
Venmanathur (Villupuram district) and remaining 13 are in different stages of progress.
Vision Tamil Nadu 2023 envisages that SIDCO shall ensure that the common facilities
and utilities are adequately provided in the industrial estates for development of SMEs
as a strategic initiative to make SMEs more vibrant. SIDCO also helped to supply raw
materials like iron and steels, wax, potassium chlorate and TNPL paper and extend
marketing assistance to MSMEs to facilitate selling their finished items and sale of bulk
procured raw materials.
State Industries Promotion Corporation of Tamil Nadu Limited- (SIPCOT):
SIPCOT caters to the needs of large-scale industries in the State. It has been extending
financial assistance to the needy units and maintaining industrial complexes with basic
infrastructure facilities to large industries. In the post reform period, the developed
industrial complexes of SIPCOT have housed various manufacturing industries viz.
Daimler, Hyundai, Saint Gobain, Dell, Renault and Nissan, Ashok Leyland, Nokia etc. It
also acts as a nodal Agency for implementing industrial assistance schemes announced
by the Government of Tamil Nadu and by extending its various incentive measures to
mega industries established in the State with high investment and employment
potential. SIPCOT developed 19 Industrial Complexes including seven Special Economic
Zones (SEZs) in 12 districts by acquiring 27000 acres of land for this purpose. Out of
which, 20806 acres of land had been allotted to 2184 industrial units, thereby attracting
₹1.00 lakh crore of investment the production of manufacturing products and creating
direct and indirect employment opportunities to 5.55 lakh persons. It is aimed to
promote more number of industrial parks in Southern districts to make it an industrially
focal point. It was proposed to create a Land Bank of 20,000 acres to fulfill the goals of
Tamil Nadu Vision 2023.It also identified another 25,000 acres to spur the industrial
development in backward districts SIPCOT had promoted seven Sector-specific Special
Economic Zones (SSSEZs) over an extent of 2231 acres in the State viz. Hi-Tech SEZ in
Sriperumbudur and Oragadam, Engineering Sector SEZ at Perundurai, Transport
Engineering SEZ at Gangaikondan, Sector Specific SEZ for Engineering at Ranipet,
Granite Industries SEZ at Bargur and Leather and Footwear Product SEZ in

Irungattukottai. Many industrial giants like Dell, Samsung Electronics, Motorola,
Sanmina, Moser Baer have established their industries in the Special Economic Zones.
Tamil Nadu Industrial Development Corporation Ltd (TIDCO):
TIDCO establish may 1965 which is used to promoting medium and large industries in
the State through joint, escort ventures, in association with private sectors. It facilitates
undertaking large industrial and infrastructural projects by involving capital and
employment-intensive industries in the State with a vision to make the State the
numerous no in the country. TIDCO has promoted several joint ventures for
manufacturing products such as wristwatches, auto parts / components, iron and steel
products, textiles, chemicals, fertilisers, pharmaceuticals, energy infrastructure,
petroleum and petro-chemicals, food and leather products. It has also ventured into
setting up of IT / ITES Parks, Bio-Tech Parks, Special Economic Zones, Infrastructure
and road development projects and Agri Export Zone. The Special Investment Region
Projects are also being promoted by TIDCO in joint ventures. Now TIDCO has proposed
to develop an Integrated Financial Service Centre (IFSC) near Chennai to attract
domestic and overseas financial institutions to spark industrial development by
providing financial support to the industries to be set up in the State.
Tamil Nadu Industrial Guidance and Export Promotion Bureau The Guidance Bureau
was established in 1992 with the objective of attracting major industrial projects in to
the State. It also facilitates single window clearance and implements ASIDE Grant
(Assistance to States for Infrastructure Development of Exports and Allied Activities).
The Guidance Bureau receives proposals for ASIDE Grant, scrutinizes to verify their
eligibility and places them in the State Level Export Promotion Committee (SLEPC). A
list of 44 projects was identified by the State to realize the ‘Tamil Nadu Vision 2023’. The
TIDCO had re commended them to get grant from the Government of India.
1. Tamil Nadu is the largest textile hub of India. Tamil Nadu is known as the “Yarn
Bowl” of the country accounting for 41% of India’s cotton yarn production.
providing direct employment to an estimated 35 million people, and thereby
contributing 4% of GDP and 35% of gross export earnings.

2. The textile sector contributes to 14% of the manufacturing sector. The western
part of Tamil Nadu comprising Coimbatore, Tirupur, Erode, Dindigul and Karur
has the majority of spinning mills manufacturing cotton/polyester/blended yarn
and silk yarn used by garment units in Tamil Nadu, Maharastra etc. Yarn is also
exported to China, Bangladesh etc. Tirupur known as “Knitting City” is the
exporter of garments worth USD 3 Billion. Karur is the major home for textile
manufacturing (Curtain cloth, bed linens, kitchen linens, toilet linens, table
linens, wall hangings etc.) and export hub in India. Erode is the main cloth market
in South India for both retail and wholesale ready-mades.
Tamil Nadu accounts for 30 per cent of leather exports and about 70 per cent of leather
production in the country. Hundreds of leather and tannery industries are located
around Vellore, Dindigul and Erode. Every year the State hosts the India International
Leather Fair in Chennai
Electrical and Electronics
Chennai has emerged as EMS Hub of India. Many multi – national companies have
chosen Chennai as their South Asian manufacturing hub. One of the global electrical
equipment public sector companies viz BHEL has manufacturing plants at
Tiruchirappalli and Ranipet.
Chennai nicknamed as “The Detroit of Asia” is home to a large number of auto
component industries. Tamil Nadu has 28% share each in automotive and auto
components industries, 19% in the trucks segment and 18% each in passenger cars and
two wheelers. The share of Tamil Nadu in all India production of automobiles and heavy
vehicles is rather significant. Automobile industry plays a crucial role in the State
economy and has been one of the key driving factors, contributing 8 per cent to State
GDP and giving direct employment to 2,20,000 people. Tamil Nadu accounts for about
21 per cent of passenger cars, 33 per cent of commercial vehicles and 35 per cent of
automobile components produced in India. Major automobile manufacturers like Ford,
Hyundai, HM-Mitsubishi, Ashok Leyland, TAFE, etc. have their manufacturing base in
Tamil Nadu.

Cement Industry
Tamil Nadu ranks third in cement production in India, First Andhra Pradesh, Second
Rajasthan. Among 10 largest cement companies in India as on 2018, Ramco Cement and
India Cement find prominent place. And also Tamil Nadu stands second in number of
cement plants with 21 units against 35 units in Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu is a leading
producer of cement in India and with manufacturing units located at Ariyalur,
Virudhunagar, Coimbatore and Tirunelveli.
Fire works
The town of Sivakasi is a leader in the areas of printing, fireworks, and safety matches.
It was fondly called as “Little Japan” by Jawaharlal Nehru. It contributes to 80% of
India’s fireworks production. Sivakasi provides over 60% of India’s total offset printing
solutions. Sivakasi is the leader in printing, fireworks, safety matches production in
India. It contributes to 80% of India’s total safety matches production and 90% of India’s
total fireworks production.
Other Industries
It referred to as the Health Capital of India or the Banking Capital of India, having
attracted investments from International Finance Corporations and the World Bank. It
is also called as Detroit of Asia. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 110 industrial
parks/estates that offer developed plots with supporting infrastructure. Also, the
Government is promoting other industrial parks like Rubber Park, Apparel Park,
Floriculture Park, TICEL Park for Biotechnology, Siruseri IT Park and Agro Export
Zones. The heavy engineering manufacturing companies are centered around the
suburbs of Chennai. Chennai boasts of global car manufacturing giants as well as home
grown companies.
It is known for its bus body building which contributes 80% of South Indian bus body
building. TNPL is the Asia largest eco-friendly paper mill also the world’s biggest Bagasse
based paper mill.

It is called as steel city and has many sago producing units and mineral wealth and the
region around Salem is rich in mineral ores. The country’s largest steel public sector
undertaking, SAIL has a steel plant in Salem.
It is the gateway of Tamil Nadu. It is a major chemical producer next only to Chennai.
Thoothukudi is known as “Gateway of Tamil Nadu”. It produces the 70 per cent of the
total salt production in the State and 30 per cent in the country.
The city referred to as “the Pump City” as it supplies two thirds of India’s requirements
of motors and pumps. The city is one of the largest exporters of jewellery, wet grinders
and auto components and the term “Coimbatore Wet Grinder” has been given a
Geographical indication.
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation
of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to
Tamil Nadu tops in power generation among the southern States. Tamil Nadu is in the
forefront of all other Indian States in installed capacity. Muppandal wind farm is a
renewable energy source, supplying the villagers with electricity for work. Wind farms
were built in Nagercoil and Tuticorin apart from already existing ones around
Coimbatore, Pollachi, Dharapuram and Udumalaipettai. These areas generate about half
of India’s 2,000 megawatts of wind energy or two percent of the total power output of
Nuclear Energy
The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant and the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant are the
major nuclear energy plants for the energy grid.

Thermal Power
In Tamil Nadu the share of thermal power in total energy sources is very high and the
thermal power plants are at Athippattu (North Chennai) Ennore, Mettur, Neyveli and
Hydel Energy
There are about 20 hydroelectric units in Tamil Nadu. The prominent units are Hundah,
Mettur, Periyar, Maravakandy, Parson Valley etc.
Solar Energy
Tamil Nadu tops in solar power generation in India Southern Tamil Nadu is considered
as one of the most suitable regions in the country for developing solar power projects.
Wind Energy
Tamil Nadu has the highest installed wind energy capacity in India. The State has very
high quality of off shore wind energy potential off the Tirunelveli coast and southern
Thoothukudi and Rameswaram coast. Wind power capacity in Tamil Nadu increased
from a meager 877 MW in 2002 to 7,652 MW in 2017.
Renewable Energy
Programme/ Systems
Cumulative achievement
up to 01.01.2019 (MW)
Wind Power 8359 MW
Bagasse Cogeneration 703 MW
Biomass Power 265 MW
Solar Power (SPV) 2431 MW
Total 11758 M
Tamilnadu (31.01.2019)
Thermal 14,886 MW
Hydro 2,178 MW
Renewable (39%) 11,934 MW
Nuclear 1,448 MW
TOTAL 30,446 MW

A 2018 report lists Tamil Nadu as one of the top nine renewable energy markets in the
world. Today, 14.3 per cent of all the energy demand in the state is met by renewable
energy, primarily solar and wind.
Tamil Nadu has a well-established transportation system that connects all parts of the
State. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network in terms of its spread and
quality, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural
habitations in the countryside.
There are 28 national highways in the State, covering a total distance of 5,036 km. The
State has a total road length of 167,000 km, of which 60,628 km are maintained by
Highways Department. It ranks second in India with a share of over 20% in total road
projects under operation in the public-private partnership (PPP) model.
Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway,
Headquartered at Chennai. The present Southern Railway network extends over a large
area of India’s Southern Peninsula, covering the States of Tamil Nadu, Kerala,
Puducherry, minor portions of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu has a total
railway track length of 6,693 km and there are 690 railway stations in the State. The
system connects it with most major cities in India. Main rail junctions in the State
include Chennai, Coimbatore, Erode, Madurai, Salem, Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli.
Chennai has a well-established Suburban Railway network, a Mass Rapid Transport
System and is currently developing a Metro system, with its first underground stretch
operational since May 2017.
c. Air
Tamil Nadu has four major international airports. Chennai International Airport is
currently the third largest airport in India after Mumbai and Delhi. Other international
airports in Tamil Nadu include Coimbatore International Airport, Madurai International
Airport and Tiruchirapalli International Airport. It also has domestic airports at
Tuticorin, Salem, and Madurai. Which connect several parts of the country? Increased

industrial activity has given rise to an increase in passenger traffic as well as freight
movement which has been growing at over 18 per cent per year.
d. Ports
Tamil Nadu has three major ports; one each at Chennai, Ennore, and Tuticorin, as well
as one intermediate port in Nagapattinam, and 23 minor ports. The ports are currently
capable of handling over 73 million metric tonnes of cargo annually (24 per cent share
of India). All the minor ports are managed by the Tamil Nadu Maritime Board, Chennai
Port. This is an artificial harbor and the second principal port in the country for handling
containers. It is currently being upgraded to have a dedicated terminal for cars capable
of handling 4,00,000 vehicles. Ennore Port was recently converted from an intermediate
port to a major port and handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu.
Banking in Tamil Nadu
In Tamil Nadu, Nationalised banks account for 52%, Private Commercial Banks 30% ,
State Bank of India and its associates 13%, Regional Rural Banks 5% (537) branches and
the remaining 22 foreign bank branches. Total deposits of the banks in Tamil Nadu
registered a year-on year increase. The share of Priority Sector Advances stands at
45.54% as against the national average of 40%. The percentage of Agricultural advances
to total advances as at the end of March 2017 works out to 19.81% as against the national
average of 18%. Banks in Tamil Nadu have maintained one of the highest Credit Deposit
Ratio of 119.15% in the country whereas this ratio is 77.5% at the national level
Education in Tamil Nadu
School Education
Tamil Nadu is grouped among high Gross Enrollment Ratio (GER) States. It ranks third
next only to Kerala (81%) and Himachal Pradesh (74%). The all India average is 43%
and the world average is 59%. This has been possible mainly due to the supply of free
food, cloth, foot-wear, scholarship, laptop etc.
Higher Education
In Gross Enrolment Ratio under higher education (Tertiary level) Tamil Nadu continues
to be at the top level well ahead of other states. The GER is 46.9% in Tamil Nadu which
is far higher against national average and all other States. Tamil Nadu has 59

Universities, 40 Medical colleges, around Engineering colleges, 20 dental colleges etc.
Tamil Nadu – pioneer in promoting Technical education in Private sector. Annual Turnout: More than 1.0 million Graduates (Engineering, Arts & Science), Diploma holders
and ITI workers, the highest in the country. Literacy rate in Tamil Nadu has been upward
trend and is 80.09 percent as per 2011 population census. Of that, male literacy stands
at 86.77 percent while female literacy is at 73.14 percent.
Self-Help Groups (SHGs)
Self Help Groups are informal voluntary association of poor people, from the similar
socio-economic background, up to 20 women (average size is 14).
1. They come together for the purpose of solving their common problems through
self-help and mutual help.
2. The SHG promotes small savings among its members.
3. They save small amounts ₹10 to ₹50 a month.
4. The savings are kept with a bank.
5. After saving regularly for a minimum of 6 months, they lend small amounts to
their members for interest.
6. Based on their performance, they are linked with the bank for further assistance
under SHG Bank Linked Programme (SBLP) started in 1992.
7. It is a holistic programme of micro enterprises covering all aspects of selfemployment, organization of the rural poor into self Help groups and their
capacity building, planning of activity clusters, infrastructure build up,
technology, credit and marketing.
The main objectives
This programme is to bring the beneficiaries above the poverty line by providing income
generating assets to them through bank credit and government subsidy.
1. NABARD estimates that there are 2.2 million SHGs in India, representing 33
million members that have taken loans from banks under its linkage program to

2. The SHG Banking Linkage Programme since its beginning has been predominant
in certain states, showing spatial preferences especially for the southern regions
like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka. These SHGs have helped
the Banks to accumulate more funds. Actually, the banks change higher interest
for the SHGs than car owners.
Major Features of SHGs are
1. SHG is generally an economically homogeneous group formed through a process
of self-selection based upon the affinity of its members.
2. Most SHGs are women’s groups with membership ranging between 10 and 20.
3. SHGs have well-defined rules and by-laws, hold regular meetings and maintain
records and savings and credit discipline.
4. SHGs are self-managed institutions characterized by participatory and collective
decision making.
Rural women are key agents for development. They play a catalytic role towards
achievement of transformational economic, environmental and social changes required
for sustainable development. But limited access to credit, health care and education are
among the many challenges they face. These are further aggravated by the global food
and economic crises and climate change. Empowering them is essential, not only for the
well-being of individuals, families and rural communities, but also for overall economic
productivity, given women’s large presence in the agricultural workforce worldwide.
Challenges Faced by Rural Women:
1. Contradictory to feminisation of global farming, women cultivators lack access to
fertilizers, seeds, credit, membership in cooperatives and unions and technical
assistance that are bestowed upon the men holding title to the agricultural land of
the household.
2. Lack of access to credits, capital, decent of work in addition to dependent children
succumb rural women to the vicious cycle of poverty, which is deeper than that of
men due to gender equality in the control and use their own income, household
resources etc., to the same degree as men.

3. Triple role of women labourers saps their energy and time that renders them weak
and malnourished.
4. Rural women lack immunity and become vulnerable to ill health and diseases that
adversely affect their work participation temporarily or permanently.
5. Both the option of and being in physical labour precludes the possibility of women
to engage in further education.
6. By the nature of tasks assigned and the extent of time augmented from women
labourers by masculine hegemony, women labourers are succumbed to over work.
7. Routinised tasks and absence of training renders rural women labourers unskilled
for their life time.
8. In addition to physical hardships, rural women are subjected to ill treatment,
verbal abuse and sometimes even physical violence and abuse which go largely
9. Under rural patriarchy operating at home and workplace, the women’s work is
pervasively undervalued, underrepresented and exploitatively extracted due to
women’s lack of knowledge about safeguards, inadequate voice in public forum
and coercion beneath symbolic violence.
Tamilnadu Government Measures for Rural Empowerment:
1. Amma Kaipesi scheme:
1. To alleviate the hardship of the self-help group members in Tamil Nadu, the state
government launched Amma mobile scheme in 2015. In the first phase of the
scheme, 20,000 mobiles will be distributed to the trainers of SHGs which will cost
₹15 crore to the government.
2. Women SHGs are playing a significant role in the progress of the Tamil Nadu
state. With a view to eradicating poverty and empowering women financially,
SHGs were established by Jayalalithaa government in 1991.
3. For the upliftment of the poor and women, the government had also initiated the
Tamil Nadu new life scheme in co-operation with World Bank in the year 2005
which was targeted at SHG. With all the efforts, women SHGs in Tamil Nadu has
emerged as a force to reckon with and 92 lakh members have so far been enrolled
in 6.08 lakh SHGs across the state.

Benefits of the Amma Mobile Scheme
1. Each SHG are made available trainers to monitor the progress of the members.
2. The SHGs trainers have to maintain various records and registers regarding all the
activities of SHGs.
3. They also have to keep details of meetings, keep records of savings, payment,
payment of the loan, internal credits and much more.
4. A special software in Tamil loaded in the mobile will facilitate them to store such
details and monitor it with ease.
5. Members of SHGs who are experienced and capable are selected as trainers. They
held meetings; train new members form new groups. The Amma mobile scheme
one the welfare schemes launched by Tamil Nadu government.
6. Amma mobile scheme will help SHGs in a long way to better functioning of SHGs.
2. Mutram:
A Monthly house magazine brought out by Tamilnadu corporations for development
of Women Ltd for SHGs.
3. Puthu vazzhvu thittam:
Puthu vazzhvu is an empowerment and poverty alleviation project implemented by
government of Tamilnadu.
4. Mahalir Thittam
Mahalir Thittam is a socio-economic empowerment programme for women
implemented by Tamil Nadu Corporation for Development of Women Ltd. Mahalir
Thittam is based on Self Help Group (SHG) approach and is implemented in partnership
with Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Community based organizations.
5. Amma Two-Wheeler Scheme
Aim: The 20 subsidized scooter scheme for working women
Beneficiaries: Working Women
Benefit: Subsidy component of 50 per cent up-to ₹25,000.
Rural poverty refers to the existence of poverty in rural areas. On the basis of
recommended nutritional intake, persons consuming less than 2,400 calories per day in
rural areas are treated as they are under rural poverty.

As per the Planning Commission estimates, the percentage of people living below
poverty in rural areas was 54.10 which accounted for 33.80 per cent during 2009-10.
Poverty is deepest among members of scheduled castes and tribes in the rural areas. In
2005 these groups accounted for 80 per cent of rural poor, although their share in the
total rural population is much smaller. In 2015, more than 80 crores of India’s people
lived in villages. One quarter of village population (22 crores people) list below the
poverty line. India is the home to 22 per cent of the world’s poor. It is needless to state
that the country has been successful in reducing the proportion of poor people, in spite
of increasing of population.
Causes for Rural Poverty
1. The distribution of land is highly skewed in rural areas. Therefore, majority of rural
people work as hired labour to support their families.
2. Lack of Non-farm Employment:
Non-farm employment opportunities do not match the increasing labour force. The
excess supply of labour in rural areas reduces the wages and increases the incidence
of poverty.
3. Lack of Public Sector Investment:
The root cause of rural poverty in our country is lack of public sector investment on
human resource development.
4. Inflation:
Steady increase in prices affects the purchasing power of the rural poor leading to
rural poverty.
5. Low Productivity:
Low productivity of rural labour and farm activities is a cause as well as the effect of
6. Unequal Benefit of Growth:
Major gains of economic development are enjoyed by the urban rich people leading to
concentration of wealth. Due to defective economic structure and policies, gains of
growth are not reaching the poor and the contributions of poor people are not
accounted properly.

7. Low Rate of Economic Growth:
The rate of growth of India is always below the target and it has benefited the rich.
The poor are always denied of the benefits of the achieved growth and development of
the country.
8.More Emphasis on Large Industries:
Huge investment in large industries catering to the needs of middle and upper classes
in urban areas are made in India. Such industries are capital-intensive and do not
generate more employment opportunities. Therefore, poor are not in a position to get
employed and to come out from the poverty in villages.
9. Social Evils:
Social evils prevalent in the society like custom, beliefs etc. increase unproductive
Remedial Measures to Rural Poverty
Since rural unemployment and rural poverty are interrelated, creation of employment
opportunities would support elimination of poverty.
Poverty Eradication Schemes
Schemes Year of launch
1. 20 Point Programme 1975
2. Integrated Rural development Programme (IRDP) 1976
3. Training Rural Youths for Self-Employment (TRYSEM 1979
4. Food for Work Programme (FWP) 1977
5. National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) 1980
6. Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) 1983
7. Jawahar Rozgar Yojana(JRY) 1989
8. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
(MGNREGS) 2006
Unemployment is a situation in which a person is actively searching for employment but
unable to find work at the prevailing wage rate. It is a tragic waste of manpower and
under categorized of human resources.

As long as there is unemployment, social problems cannot be stopped; and, economy
cannot achieve development. India are categorized into three classes:
1. Open Unemployment
2. Concealed Unemployment or Under employment
3. Seasonal Unemployment.
Open Unemployment
Unemployed persons are identified as they remain without work. This type of
unemployment is found among agricultural labourers, rural artisans and literate
Concealed Unemployment
It is difficult to identify who are under employed; for many are employed below their
productive capacity and even if they are withdrawn from work the output will not
diminish. It is also called Disguised Unemployment or Under employment. This type of
unemployment is found among small and marginal farmers, livestock rearers and rural
artisans. This kind of unemployment situation is more serious in villages than in urban
areas. Disguised unemployment in rural India is 25 per cent to 30 per cent.
Seasonal Unemployment
The employment occurs only on a particular season supported by natural circumstances
and the remaining period of a year the rural people are unemployed or partially
employed. In seasons like ploughing, sowing, weeding and harvesting there is scarcity of
labour and in the rest of the year there is unemployment. It is pathetic to note that a
farmer who cultivates one crop in a year usually goes without a job for almost 5 to 7
months and ultimately commit suicide.
Causes for Rural Unemployment
1. Absence of skill development and employment generation:
Lack of Government initiatives to give required training and then to generate
employment opportunities.
2. Seasonal Nature of Agriculture:
Agricultural operations are seasonal in nature and depend much on nature and rainfall.
Therefore, the demand for labour becomes negligible during off-season. So, non-farm
employment opportunities must be created.

3. Lack of Subsidiary Occupation:
Rural people are not able to start subsidiary occupations such as poultry, rope making,
piggery etc. due to shortages of funds for investment and lack of proper marketing
arrangements. This restricts the employment opportunity and rural family incomes.
Government must arrange funds for these people. However, as now they pay huge
interest to the local money lenders, for they are unable to get loans from formal sources.
4.Mechanization of Agriculture:
The landlords are the principal source of employment to the farm labour. Mechanization
of agricultural operations like ploughing, irrigation, harvesting, threshing etc. reduces
employment opportunities for the farm labour.
5. Capital-Intensive Technology:
The expanding private industrial sector is largely found in urban areas and not creating
additional employment opportunities due to the application of capital-intensive
technologies. Government must establish firms to absorb surplus labour power.
6. Defective System of Education:
The present system of education has also aggravated the rural unemployment problem.
Large number of degrees producing institutions has come in the recent years. Students
also want to get degrees only, not any skill. Degrees should be awarded only on the basis
of skills acquired. The unemployed youth should get sufficient facilities to update their
Remedies for Rural Unemployment
In order to reduce rural unemployment in the country there is a need to take integrated
and coordinated efforts from various levels. A few remedial measures are listed below:
1. Subsidiary Occupation:
To reduce the seasonal unemployment rural people should be encouraged to adopt
subsidiary occupations. Loans should be granted and proper arrangements should be
made for marketing their products.
2. Rural Works Programme:
Rural Works Programme such as construction and maintenance of roads, digging of
drains, canals, etc. should be planned during off-season to provide gainful employment
to the unemployed.

3. Irrigation Facilities:
Since rainfall is uncertain irrigation facilities should be expanded to enable the farmers
to adopt multiple cropping. The increased cropping intensity creates additional demand
for labour.
4.Rural Industrialization:
To provide employment new industries should be set up in rural areas. This will open
new fields of employment and also change the attitude of rural people towards work. For
this, government has to do something. Private sector would not take up this
5. Technical Education:
Employment oriented courses should be introduced in schools and colleges to enable the
literate youth to start their own units.
Tamil Nadu stands sixth in population with 7.21 crore against India’s 121 crore as per
2011 census. It accounts for three per cent of water sources, four per cent of land area
against six per cent of population. North East monsoon is the major source of rainfall
followed by South West monsoon. Though TamilNadu has well developed states in India
it has many environment problems.
The issues are:
Water pollution:
1. When the floods struck in Tamilnadu, the most iconic images were those of
Chennai’s famed beaches lined with mountains of trash. Waste such as plastic
materials, wrappers, bottles, covers, metals, scrap and wooden logs were spread
out on display along the coastline of the Bay of Bengal in Chennai, across Marina
and Elliot’s beaches.
2. The 136 km long Kosasthalaiyar river is the major water source for Chennai,
Thiruvallur and a few North Arcot taluks. The river originates from Andhra
Pradesh, flowing across Tamil Nadu and draining into the sea at Ennore Creek.
The river enters the Chennai metropolitan area as Cooum river, one of the most
polluted water bodies in the district.

3. Kosasthalaiyar was reported to be “more polluted than industrial effluents”,
according to a study conducted by the National Green Tribunal in December 2017.
Of the total 20 samples taken along the area, all five samples from Kosasthalaiyar
contained higher than permissible levels of lead, mercury and arsenic.
Oil spill
Oil spill is a major issue in India recent past especially in Tamilnadu. More than a year
later, during the early hours of 28 January 2017, there was a giant oil spill outside
Kamarajar port, when the outbound BW Maple collided with an inbound tanker Dawn
Kanchipuram. A total of 251.46 tonnes of black, sticky oil coated the Ennore coast.
Reports state that the oil spill was removed largely by hand, with more than 2000
volunteers and labourers using mugs and buckets. However, the damage remained toxic,
killing olive ridley turtles and other marine fauna on Chennai’s beaches.
Air pollution:
1. Though air pollution played major role in north India especially in national capital
region, in recent past Chennai and other cities also shown the unhealthy
proportion of air. The reason for this was more number of outdated vehicles, and
The dust on roads, metro construction, burning of wastes and even the coal yards
and the thermal coal plant at Ennore remain to be a major contributor to the
increasing pollution levels in the state capital also major important industries
which is polluted more located nearby towns and residential areas. The industries
are emitting more number of sulfur and PM2.5 and PM10. The elderly people and
childrens are affected more to this. About 30 per cent of the respiratory diseases
are related to personal exposure to high level ambient PM concentrations. PM10
can be breathed into the lungs, and therefore, its health effects are more severe
than large particles.
2. Thoothukudi is the sole city from Tamil Nadu which figures in the list of 100 cities
that have been found by Union Ministry of Environment and Climate Change to
have high levels of air pollution with the presence of Particulate Matter (PM) 10,
Sulphur di-oxide (Sos) and Nitrogen di-oxide (NO2).

Kodungaiyur dump
Drifting away from the shores, the city’s largest dump yard in Kodungaiyur allegedly has
12 million cubic metre of waste, dumped over a period of 30 years. A fire accident in April
2018 brought life to a halt in the area; residents reportedly had to flee to escape the toxic
air, the unbearable stench and eye irritation. The state budget announced in February
2019, however, has allocated ₹7000 crores for solid waste management in the city,
including the remediation and reclamation of both the major garbage dumps,
Kondungaiyur and Perungudi.
Recent issues
The lack of rainfall in recent past in India and Tamilnadu met some parts of areas with
more rain which leads to floods and some part of India get below normal rain leads the
state more drought conditions.
Gaja cyclone:
1. On November 16, Vedaranyam, the tip of the nose of peninsular India stretching
into the Bay of Bengal, was in the eye of a storm when Cyclone Gaja made landfall
and swirled through the fertile Cauvery delta in Tamil Nadu. The cyclone left the
delta battered like no other in more than half-a-century
2. The cyclone with high velocity winds gusting up to 120 km an hour sheared trees,
huts, tiled houses and every other structure in its path. Almost the entire delta
spread over Nagapattinam, Tiruvarur and Thanjavur districts, considered the
granary of the State, the neighbouring Pudukottai and even interior Tiruchi and
Dindigul districts staggered under its impact as the cyclone made its way to the
Arabian Sea in Kerala.
1. The cyclone swept in wind and water, destroying lakhs of trees, including coconut,
banana, cashew, mango, jackfruit, casuarina, betelvine, eucalyptus, teak and
sugarcane on thousands of hectares.
2. The paddy crop of the samba/thaladi seasons was also damaged in some places.
3. Boats and huts of fishermen were destroyed. The Point Calimere Wildlife
Sanctuary, a Ramsar site (a wetland of international importance for
conservation), was ravaged.

4. Carcasses of blackbuck, spotted deer, feral horses and birds were washed on the
shores of Karaikal in Puducherry.
5. Scores of villages were wiped out and thousands rendered homeless. The steel
roofs of petrol stations, grain storage godowns and other buildings were blown
away. Nearly a lakh tonne of stocks in salt pans in Vedaranyam were washed away.
6. Over 3.41 lakh houses with thatched or tiled roofs were damaged, according to an
official estimate. More than 3.78 lakh persons were accommodated in over 550
relief centres. Over 92,500 birds and 12,200 heads of cattle perished.
2. Algal bloom:
1. An algal bloom is the rapid growth of microscopic algae that form a green cover
over water bodies blocking the sunlight. Increased temperature, abundant
nutrients, low tidal amplitude, and low currents have given ideal conditions for
algae to bloom.
2. Example: A large, drifting algal bloom that has left 3,500 fish dead along a 10km
stretch in Ramanathapuram district has prompted scientists from the Central
Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI) to take help from eyes in the sky to
monitor the algal bloom’s path. The bloom of algae is a death knell for fish as it is
not just a sign of increased temperatures and pollution, the algae also excrete
ammonia, depletes the water of its oxygen and even physically chokes fish – like
in the case of Ramanathapuram.
India, as the world’s fastest-growing major economy, may well be catching up with the
richer economies in terms of absolute size. But economic convergence within the country
remains a distant dream as poorer States continue to lag behind the richer ones in
economic growth.
Regional Economic Disparity
It refers to difference in economic development and uneven economic achievement in
different geographical regions. It is reflected by the indicators like per capita income, the
proportion of population living below the poverty line, the percentage of urban
population, percentage of population engaged in agriculture vis-à-vis engaged in
industries, infrastructural development of different states.

Need for Balanced Regional Development
1. Within democratic polity, growth and prosperity must exhibit regional balance.
Thus, a democratic government striving to achieve such balance is axiomatic.
2. TamilNadu is subdivided into one of the 29 states in India which is differing in
terms of their productive potential and the type of industry they can support. The
realization of their potential holds the key to increasing the competitiveness of the
nation as a whole.
3. Regional disparity in development causes challenges like violent conflicts,
unplanned and haphazard migration e.g. Insurgency in North-east
and Leftwing extremism in large parts of central and eastern states of India.
4. The sustainability of the growth rate and the goal of the country to achieve its
development target will be difficult to meet unless India develops as an integrated
whole of regional competency.
Causes of Regional Disparity
1.Historical Factor
The British government and industrialists developed only those regions of the country
which possessed rich potential for prosperous manufacturing and trading activities.
Thus, port cities like Bombay, and strategically important areas like Calcutta and Madras
received initial development. In the absence of proper land reform measures and proper
industrial policy, the country could not attain economic growth to a satisfactory level.
2.Geographical Factors
The difficult terrain surrounded by flood prone areas, hilly terrain, rivers and dense
forests leads to increase in the cost of administration, cost of developmental projects,
besides making mobilization of resources particularly difficult. The south Indian states
like TamilNadu, Kerala and Andrapradesh are though lack of resources it remained
mostly developed states due to the accessibility and resources like young populations etc.
3.Location Specific Advantages
Due to some locational advantages like availability of irrigation, raw materials, market,
port facilities etc. some regions are getting special favour in respect of site selections of
various developmental projects e.g. Ennore oil refineries located in close to sea.

4.Early Mover Advantage
New investment in the private sector has a general tendency to concentrate much on
those regions having basic infrastructural facilities. Term-lending institutions and
commercial banks tend to concentrate investments in the relatively more developed
States. Tamilnadu backed with more BPO companies like TCS, 30modernize etc. Global
investor meet brings more companies to invest in tamilnadu.
5.Failure of Planning Mechanism
Local needs; one size fits all approach, lack of adequate resources, poor implementation
of plans, lack of planning capacity at state level reduced capacity of Planning
Commission to ensure balanced development.
6.Law and Order Problem
Extremist violence, law and order problem etc. have been obstructing the flow of
investments into backward regions besides making flight of capital from backward
states. In Tamilnadu the modernisation of police force, enhancement of skills, providing
latest equipment and other training programme to develop mental strength of police
personnel have reduced caste, communal clashes, terrorism, religious fanaticism, the
activities of fundamentalists, extremists and labour unrest substantially.
Government Interventions to Reduce Regional Disparities in India:
1.Higher resource transfers from the Centre to the Backward States via;
1. Planning Commission (before 2014) mainly in the form of plan transfers, and
2. Finance Commission in the form of non-plan transfers. Since 1969 a Special
Category status was introduced which was in operation till 13th Finance
commission to provide greater percentage of grants to such states from Centre.
3. The large weight given to “Income Distance” by 14th Finance commission is an
important step towards plugging the gaps in per-capita income between states.
2.Development Programmes
Programmes of agriculture, community development programme, Drought Prone
Areas Programme, irrigation and power, transport and communications and social
services aimed at providing basic facilities and services to people in all the regions.

3.Provision of Facilities in Areas which Lag Behind Industrially
River valley projects and multi-purpose projects e.g. Narmada Dam for dry parts
of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh, proposed Ken-Betwa inter river link project for
Bundelkhand region etc.
4.Programmes for the Expansion of Village and Small Industries
Village and small industries are spread all over the country and various forms of
assistance provided by the Central and State Governments are made available in the
areas according to programmes undertaken. Industrial estates have been set up in all
States, and increasingly, they are being located in smaller towns and rural areas.
5.Diffusion of industrial activity and infrastructure
In the location of public sector projects, the claims of relatively backward areas have
been kept in view wherever this could be done without giving up essential technical and
economic criteria.
For North east region East West Corridor project, Special Accelerated Road
Development Project (SARDP-NE) and Trans Arunachal Highway for
increasing connectivity.
There is an on-going major rail construction programme in the NER. 25 rail projects are
under way in the region of which 11 are national projects. Subsidies, exemptions and tax
breaks given to industries for investing in backward regions. For instance, North East
Industrial and Investment Promotion Policy (NEIIPP 2007) for Arunachal
Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and
Tripura; Special Package Scheme for Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and
6.Schemes for Development of Backward Areas
The Backward Region Grant Fund (BRGF) is a Programme implemented in 272
identified backward districts in all States of the country to redress regional imbalances
in development. BRGF consists of two funding windows namely Development Grant and
Capacity Building. Pradhan Mantri Khanij Kshetra Kalyan Yojana
(PMKKKY) has been launched in September 2015 for the welfare of tribals and tribal
areas and other affected by mining.

7.Competitive Federalism
Competitive federalism means spirit of competition among two or more states in the
matters of trade, investment and commerce. States compete with each other to attract
funds and investment, which facilitates efficiency in administration and enhances
developmental activities.
In Tamilnadu regional disparities compared with others:
1.Poverty, growth and Equality:
Tamil Nadu is one of India’s richest states. Since 1994, the state has seen a steady decline
in poverty, with the result that today, Tamil Nadu has lower levels of poverty than most
other states in the country. Nevertheless, parts of the state still record high levels of
poverty. After 2005, Tamil Nadu was among India’s fastest growing states, with growth
being driven mainly by services. Although consumption inequality in the state decreased
slightly after 2005, it still remains higher than in many other states. Poverty line in
Tamilnadu is 12% but in Maharashtra 17%.
People in Tamil Nadu are increasingly moving off the farm and into other kinds of work
such as construction. But, while growth in non-farm jobs has been positive, it has been
slow. And although wage employment grew after 2005, this growth took place mainly in
jobs that paid casual wages. Overall, the pace of job creation in the state has lagged
behind the expansion of the working age population that is not in school. For women,
there are even fewer jobs than before, and many have dropped out of the labor force.
3.Health and education:
Tamil Nadu has recorded mixed progress on health and education. Infant mortality is
among the lowest in the country and is declining. Malnutrition is low for most
households compared to the national average. Open defecation, on the other hand, is
high, especially among low income households. On education, Tamil Nadu has made
significant progress. Today, children in the state are staying longer in school, and
learning outcomes have improved since 2013. In addition, the share of adults with
secondary schooling is above the national average. Regarding school enrollment, the
percentage of children in public schools is close to the national average, while private
schools are typically attended by children from rich families.

4.Social inclusion:
Progress across social groups has been uneven in Tamil Nadu. For the Scheduled Castes
and Scheduled Tribes, poverty remains higher than for other groups. These groups also
lag behind others in schooling and access to salaried jobs. Moreover, open defecation is
higher among households belonging to these groups. One area where most households
in the state face a challenge is access to drinking water, with levels of access being lower
than the national average.
Women in Tamil Nadu have experienced mixed progress. On the bright side, maternal
mortality in the state is low and declining. Moreover, women in Tamil Nadu are better
educated than in many other states, with more girls going to school today than before.
However, Tamil Nadu’s child sex ratio is below many other states and has not shown
much improvement since 2001. On the work front, women have been leaving the labour
force in large numbers since 2005, especially in the rural areas. But, when women work,
they by and large have similar types of jobs as men.
Many companies, including multi-national ones, committed to invest ₹3,00,413 crore at
the recently concluded Global Investors Meet in Tamil Nadu because law and order was
under control in the State. The peaceful situation prevailing in Tamil Nadu had attracted
1. Local Government means, the government which manages services and amenities
in our villages, towns and cities with focus on local problems. The local
governments normally function within a specified limited territory of a village, a
town, a city and also a large metropolitan city. The local governments function as
the basic link between the people in a village or town with the government. As and
when people have problems such as road repairs, water stagnation in the streets,
non-functioning of street lights and construction of small water bodies recreation
parks, etc.
2. The local governments have the responsibility to attend to any emergency
situations, birth or death of persons in the village or town. The local governments

are the institutions, which issues certificates of proof of residence, birth, death
and incomes etc to the residents in that area.
3. In total, the local governments are the institutions which are responsible for all
such local needs of the people. They are the lowest unit of administration in the
administrative structure of the government. The local government has council,
which is normally elected by the people of the village or town concerned, which is
responsible for the representing the problems of the citizens in the council and
find solutions to the problems. The council representatives are elected once in five
years or four years, depending upon the law in operation in the country.
4. The local governments are representative institutions, representing people in the
council. There are legally mandated to discuss and give solutions to the problems
of the people of that area and also represent the problem to the higher levels of
the government such as state. Since the local governments are established on the
basis of democratic process, all the problems discussed by the council of the local
governments should go through the process of discussion, debate and
deliberations and unanimously accepted by the council. The members of the
council are given freedom to discuss and also to take decisions at same time within
the framework of the fundamental law of the land called Constitution.
5. The importance of the local government lies in the nature of the problems handled
by the local governments, which are basically “local” in nature and also the variety
of problems attended by the local government cannot be attended by the higher
levels of the government like state or central governments. Because the local
problems are specific to the local areas and the solutions found for those problems
should also be relevant to the situation. An irrelevant solution to the problems
may hamper the situation and also it is also concerned with the spending of the
taxes collected from the people. If solutions are irrelevant to the local problems,
the resources used for that programme may by wasted and it gives more burden
on the people again.
6. Therefore, local governments are the institutions created for the purposes of
solving the local issues and addressing the local level problems. The local
governments normally consist of elected representatives drawn from the local
population representing the local people and they represent the local issues in the

council and try to find solutions to the problems. The local governments are the
important channel of flow of resources and programmes to the people at the
lowest levels normally called “grassroots” level. No country today affords to ignore
local governments because of the fact that local issues at present becomes global
issues. With development of Information and communication Technology (ICT),
the whole world has become global village.
Classification of local government institutions
Local governments are classified as Rural and Urban based local governments. The Rural
and Urban divide is made based on the nature of the occupation of the residents viz;
Local Government Urban
1. The Urban local governments in India are classified in to various types depending
upon the political and economic basis of the formation of the urban local
governments such as, Municipal Corporations, Townships, Area Planning
Committees and Cantonment Boards.
2. Lord Rippon is known as the Father of Indian Local Self Government. The very
existence of Local Self Government is for the decentralisation of powers in terms
of democratic perspective. Democratic decentralisation is considered to be an
important mechanism for distribution of powers from federal government to
local-self-government. According to democratic governance, participation as all
levels is an important aspect of political development. India with vast
geographical area, a sense of political participation can be achieved through the
establishment of local self-government.
3. Mahatma Gandhi referred devolution of political powers shall enhance
democratic functioning at the local level. He called the Indian village as ‘Little
Some characteristics of rural and urban local governments are:
1. Local government possesses a well-defined jurisdiction. It has a definite territory
like village or district. Its aim is to solve the peculiar problems present in that area.
2. Local government is governed by the locally elected representatives. They are
accountable to the local electorate. The elected representatives administer the
local affair without undue interference from the central or state governments. At

the village level, there is direct participation of all adult population in the Gram
3. The primary concern of the local government is to promote the interests of the
local people.
4. Local government has its own budget and financial resources.
5. Local government enjoys complete autonomy. It is free to manage its affairs
according to the rules laid down by the central and state governments. It has a
definite sphere of activity.
6. Local government enjoys the constitutional status and protection with
compulsory existence and functioning.
The constitution of India came into force on 26 January, 1950. In order to revive the
ancient system of self-governance Article 40, of our constitution lays down that the state
shall take steps to organise village panchayats and endow them with such powers and
authority as may be necessary to enable them to function as units of self-government.
The urban population is rapidly growing in our country. Consequently, the needs of the
people are increasing. Their problems are also complex. In order to fulfil and solve them,
the urban local bodies have been Constituted. These bodies are also known as Municipal
bodies. The constitution of India has ascertained their creation, composition, powers
and other things. Their functions are stated in the 12th Schedule. The constitution has
recognized the municipal corporations, municipalities and town panchayats as urban
local bodies. However, there are some other urban local bodies like the Townships,
Cantonment Boards and Notified Area Committees.
Municipal Corporation
The uppermost form of the municipal organization is the corporation. The municipal
corporation has more powers. It enjoys greater financial autonomy and wider functions
as compared to other local organisations. The municipal corporations are established in
big cities under the Special Municipal Acts passed by the state legislatures. The
corporations of Union Territories are set up by the statute of the Union parliament.
Usually large cities with a population of 10 lakhs and above are constituted as
corporations. Their annual income is normally one crore rupees. They have a larger
population and better income. However, corporations have been set up even in towns
having a population of less than two lakhs. Their annual income does not exceed

₹50,000 Chennai, Madurai, Coimbatore, Tiruchirappalli, Tirunelveli, Tiruppur,
Dindigul, Erode, Tanjore, Vellore, Tuticorin and Salem are twelve corporations in Tamil
All municipal corporations have some common characteristics.
1. A Municipal Corporation is established only be the statue passed by the state
2. A Municipal Corporation is based on the separation of the deliberative and
executive functions.
3. The state government has powers to control, supervise and dismiss the council.
4. Usually a municipal corporation is set up for thickly populated urban areas.
5. A municipal corporation functions within the specified peripheral jurisdiction.
Function of the Corporation
Like the rural local bodies the municipal bodies have to function as institutions of self
government. The functions of municipal bodies are as follows:
1. Urban planning, including town planning.
2. Regulation of land, use and construction of buildings.
3. Planning for economic and social development.
4. Construction and maintenance of roads and bridges.
5. Water supply.
6. Public health and sanitation;
7. Fire services.
8. Urban forestry and protection of the environment.
9. Safeguarding the interests for weaker section of society, including the
handicapped and mentally retarded.
10. Slum improvement.
11. Urban poverty alleviation.
12. Provision of urban facilities such as parks, gardens, play grounds.
13. Promotion of educational and cultural aspects.
14. Maintenance of burial/cremation grounds.
15. Cattle ponds, prevention of cruelty to animals.
16. Vital statistics, including registration of births and deaths.

17. Public amenities, including street-lighting, public convenience and bus stops.
18. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.
All municipal bodies, including the corporation, perform many functions related to the
above matters. In addition, they also carry out some discretionary functions like
plantations and care of trees on road sides; destruction or detention of street dogs, pigs
and other animals causing public nuisance, organisation and management of fairs and
exhibitions, supply of electricity and so on.
Sources of Income of Municipal Corporation
There are two types of sources
1. Tax revenue
2. Non-tax revenue.
The non-tax revenue is derived from fees, fines and grants-in-aid as well as loans from
the state government. The main source of income is from taxes. Generally, a corporation
is empowered by the act to levy and collect taxes listed below:
1. Property tax on lands and buildings.
2. Taxes on vehicles and animals.
3. Theatre tax.
4. Tax on advertisements exhibited to people within the city.
5. Tax on preference, trades and callings.
6. Entertainment tax.
7. Tax on consumption and sale of electricity.
8. Betterment tax on the increase of land values.
9. Tolls.
The receipt of the corporation is credited into the city corporation (general) fund. The
money required for its expenditure is released from this fund.
Corporation Council
The Corporation Council is the major part of the corporation. A corporation is divided
into a number of wards depending on the population and the extent of the area. For each
ward a representative will be elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. These
representatives or members are known as councillors. The councillors so elected
constitute the council of the corporation concerned. As in the case of the rural local
bodies and in the same manner seats are reserved in a corporation for scheduled castes

and tribes, women and chairpersons. The state legislature is empowered to reserve seats
for other backward classes also. The age, qualifications and other related matters of the
rural local bodies apply to corporation councillors also. Besides the directly elected
members, the Members of Parliament and member of the State members, the Members
of Parliament and member of the State Legislature belonging to the corporation area are
represented in the corporation council. All these members have voting right in the
council. The state government can also nominate persons having experience in
municipal administration. But the nominated persons do not have right to vote in the
council. The size of the council various from state to state. The Corporation of Chennai
had 200 members. The term of the corporation council is five years. If dissolved earlier
for proper reason, elections must be held within six months. The duration of the
reconstituted council shall last only for the remaining period of five years. The
Corporation Council is essentially a deliberative body. If functions like the local
legislative assembly. It transforms the popular wish into the laws of the city.
Mayor and Deputy Mayor
The Mayor is the political head of corporation. He is called the First Citizen and Father
of the city. The mayor is directly elected by the people. His tenure is five years. The
councillors elects a Deputy Mayor from among themselves. If Mayor act against the laws,
complaint is to be given in written form to corporation commissioner by three-fifth of
members and the resolution is to be passed by four-fifth of members, it is to be submitted
to government, it request Mayor to give detailed explanation, if government is not
satisfied, its decision is final and he may be removed. The Mayor is ceremonial head. He
represents the city on ceremonial occasions. He presides over the meeting of the council
and maintains discipline and order. He can expel the members for misconduct. He may
exclude any objectionable portion from the proceedings of the council. The Mayor has
the power to convene the special meetings of the council. He can obtain information from
the commissioner of the corporation on any subject about the administration of the city.
He also sees whether the decisions of the council are being properly implemented. The
Mayor can delegate some of his powers, in writing to the Deputy Mayor. Otherwise the
Deputy Mayor discharges the Mayors functions in his absence. All correspondence
between the corporation and the stale government must pass through the Mayor. The
Mayor, however, cannot with hold it.

1. The Committees of a Municipal Corporation play important role in looking into
various activities of the council. They help for the efficient performance of the
functions of the corporation.
2. These committees include: Standing Committee, Schools Committee,
3. Hospitals Committee, Electricity supply and Transport Committee, City
Improvement Committee, Health Committee, Taxation and Finance Committee,
Water Works Committee and so on.
4. The members of these committees are elected from among the members of the
council. The members of each committee elected their chairman. Among all the
committees, the chief one is Standing Committee. This committee possesses
adequate executive, supervisory, financial and personnel powers. The office of the
chairman of the Standing Committee is of political importance, ranking next to
the Mayor. The Standing Committee performs all such functions as detailed in the
statute of the corporation. The commissioner reports to the Standing Committee
on a variety of functions.
The Municipal (Corporation) Commissioner
The commissioner is the Chief Administrator of the corporation. His primary
responsibility is to implement the policies made by the corporation council. The
commissioner is mostly a member of the State Administrative Service. He is appointed
by the state government. Normally, he holds the rank of an Indian Administrative
Service (I.A.S.) officer. His powers are those which have been stated in the corporation
act and those delegated by the council, standing committee etc. He had to comply with
the rules while exercising his statutory powers. The functions of the commissioner relate
to the administrative and financial matters of the corporation. He exercises control and
supervision over the employees of the corporation. The preparation of the budget of the
corporation is the responsibility of the commissioner. He does not have electoral
functions as he enjoyed before the 14th Amendment. The commissioner is the kingpin in
the administration of the corporation.
He has the right to attend, and speak at the meetings of the council and various
committees. He provides the necessary information and details to the councillors. The

commissioner also guides them in the discussions and act as their spokesman in the
council. Thus, the commissioner plays a vital role in the corporation.
In the urban local governments, municipalities come next. The term municipality refers
to a self-governing town or city. There are more than 1500 municipalities in our country.
The number of municipalities varies from state to state. The municipalities are governed
by the Municipal Acts of the states. The state has the discretion to declare any smaller
urban or town area to be a municipality. The minimum population to constitute a
municipality is between 5000-50000. The different occupations pursued by the people
are mostly non-agriculture. Depending on the strength of population and annual
income, the municipalities have been classified into three to four grades in different
The functions of the municipalities are more or less similar to those of the corporations.
They fall within the frame work of the 12th schedule of the constitution. However, the
functions of the municipalities can also be classified into compulsory and discretionary
In general, the municipalities have the following obligatory functions:
1. Supply of pure water.
2. Construction and maintenance of public streets.
3. Lightening and watering facilities in the streets.
4. Cleaning the public streets.
5. Regulation of dangerous trades and practices.
6. Maintenance of hospitals and schools.
7. Registration of births and deaths.
8. Removing obstructions and projections in public streets, bridges and other
public places.
9. Naming streets and numbering the houses.
10. All matters relating to public health, sanitation prevention of dangerous diseases
and regulation of places for disposing of the dead ones of various kinds.
11. Provision for fire-fighting services.

The discretionary functions of the municipalities are as follows:
1. Laying out of the town areas
2. Construction and maintenance of public parks, gardens, libraries, rest houses,
leper homes, orphanages, reserve homes for woman, etc.
3. Planting trees on roadsides
4. Survey conducting.
5. Housing for weaker sections
6. Promoting the welfare of the municipal area and
7. Providing transport facilities within the municipal area and organising cultural
and other activities for the people.
Sources of Income
The principal sources of income of the municipality are:
1. Property tax.
2. Profession tax.
3. Octroi duties – taxes on goods.
4. Animal and vehicle tax.
5. Entertainment tax.
6. Water and lighting tax.
7. Grants and loans from the government.
The items of expenditure are the general administration, medical and public health,
education, public works, water supply, lighting and other amenities. The municipalities
have municipal funds to credit their income and draw money for their expenditure.
Municipal Council:
Every municipality has a governing body. It is the law-making body of the municipality.
The Municipal council consists of councillors elected directly from various wards. As in
the case of the other local bodies, there are reservations for the scheduled castes and
scheduled tribes, backward classes and women. There is provision in a municipality for
the representation of the members of parliaments, member of the state legislature and
the chairpersons of the wards committees with a right to vote. The size of the municipal
council is primarily related to the density of the population of the city. Every councillors

and the nominated person, before taking his seat, must take an oath to bear allegiance
to the constitution of India, to uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India and to
faithfully discharge his duty. The term of the municipal council is five years. If it is
suspended earlier, elections must be held within six months. Likewise, if any seat falls
vacant due to the resignation, removal or disqualification of a member, it must be filled
within six months. However, the member elected to a vacant seat can be in office only
for the remaining period of the original council. The Municipal council is also assisted
by standing and other committees in the performance of its tasks.
Chairman of the Municipality
Each Municipal council has a chairman. There is provision for a vice-chairman also. They
are elected by the councillors from among themselves. Unlike the Mayor and Deputy
mayor of a corporation, the Municipal chairman and vice-chairman hold office for five
years. As in the case of the Mayor and deputy Mayor, the Municipal chairman and vice
chairman can also be removed from office. The chairman convenes and presides over the
meetings of the council. He regulates the conduct of business. He supervises the finance
and executes the administration of the municipality. He has access to all the municipal
administration. In brief, he has to perform such functions and exercise such powers as
are conferred on him by the Municipal Act.
Executive Officer – Commissioner
There is an Executive Officer for each municipality. He is called the commissioner. He
belongs to the state service. He is appointed by the state government. The powers and
functions of the municipal commissioner are almost similar in different municipalities.
His powers and functions have been stated in the Municipal Acts. In brief the municipal
commissioner executes the resolutions and decisions of the council. He sends copies of
the resolutions to the concerned authorities. He enters into contracts, he issues notices,
licenses, permits etc. The commissioner assists the chairman in agenda preparation. He
prepares and executes the municipal budget. He sends administrative reports to the
higher authorities. He exercises supervision and control over the municipal staff. It is his
responsibility to maintain municipal records. He brings to the chairman all cases of
misappropriation and financial losses incurred by the municipality. He can also attend
the council meeting. The successful working of the municipality largely depends upon

the harmonious and adjusting relations between the chairman of the council and the,
Most of the public sector undertakings have established townships for their employees.
Outlay on the townships forms near eleven percent of the total investment on public
sector undertaking. These townships have been established either in rural area or in area
adjacent to existing towns.
The Characteristics of Townships
1. These are entirely planned.
2. They maintain civic services and other facilities which are of higher quality than
generally provided by the municipal bodies.
3. These services and facilities have been financed by the industry.
4. A township has a variety of employment and other opportunities to offer to the
people. Hence a large number of people go to it.
The township form of local government is treated as a normal administration. In certain
townships like Neyveli and others town administrators are appointed by the
corporations. These administrative officers all assisted by the departmental heads,
engineers and others. The township form is bureaucratic unlike the municipality. For
fear of political interference in the civic administration, the township does not have any
democratic set up further the residents of the townships are satisfied with the existing
arrangements and facilities.
Cantonment Boards
The cantonments are centrally administered areas. They are placed under the direct
administrative control of the Ministry of Defence. The cantonment boards are
constituted under the Cantonments Act, 1924. These are corporate bodies like the other
local bodies. Cantonment is the place in a city where troops are stationed. Cantonment
board is constituted for dealing with the local problems of the cantonment area. The
President of the cantonment board is the commanding officer. He has been given a
casting vote. He is an ex-officio member continues so long as he holds the official
position. The elected members hold office for five years and they select among
themselves one vice president. The cantonment board is entrusted with the municipal

functions. These functions as found in a municipal council, have been classified into
obligatory and optional. The sources of income of the board are darted into tax revenue
and nontax revenue. The taxation power of the board is analogous to that of a
municipality. The board can impose any tax with the previous sanction of the central
government. The officer commanding the station sanctions the budget estimates
prepared by the board. The existence of cantonments as separate entities is anomalous.
Hence, they may in the long run, become parts of the neighboring municipal bodies.
Town Area Committee
The town area committees have been created in Assam, Kerala, Madya Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh, West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Town Area
committees are governed by separate acts passed by the state government. The District
Collector has greater control and powers over a town area committee. Members of the
town area committee are elected or nominated by the government, or partly elected and
partly nominated. This committee is assigned a limited number of functions such as,
street lighting, drainage and conservancy. However, these committees may be absorbed
in the town panchayats.
Notified Area Committee
A Notified Area Committee is created for an area which does not fulfill all the conditions
said above as necessary for the constitution of a municipality. Still it is considered
important. It is also constituted for a newly developing town. The formation of this
committee is notified by the government in the official gazette. Hence it is called the
notified area committee. The committee functions within the framework of the
municipal act of the state. But only such provisions of the municipal act apply to it as are
notified in the official gazette. The notified area committee enjoys all the powers of the
municipal council. But unlike the council, it is a nominated body. The chairman and the
members of this committee are appointed by the State Government.
Three Tier Panchayat Raj Political Administration
District Panchayat District Rural Development Authority Panchayat Panchayat Union
Block Development System Office Village Panchayat Village Administrative Officer

District Panchayat
District Panchayat is the top-tier of the Panchayat Raj structure in Tamil Nadu. It is the
body at the District level. It has jurisdiction over the entire district excluding such
portions of the district as are included in a municipality or town panchayat or industrial
township or under the authority of a municipal corporation or a cantonment.
The District panchayat consists of the following:
1. The directly elected members from the wards in the district panchayat. Each ward
is constituted for about 50000 people of the district panchayat area. Only one
member is directly elected from each ward. But one cannot be elected as member
of more than one district.
2. The members of the House of people and the members of the state legislature of
the District panchayat area.
3. The Member of the Council of States who is registered as elector within the
district. The members under categories a, b and c can also take part in the
proceedings and vote at the meeting of the District Panchayat. Seats are reserved
for persons belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in proportion
to their strength with the total population of the district panchayat area. 1/3 seats
are reserved for them are allotted by rotation to different wards in the district
panchayat area. The age qualification for a voter is 18. It is 21 for a member to be
directly elected to the district panchayat. But, the names must be in the concerned
electoral rolls. Those who are under the employment of the central and state
governments and the local bodies are not eligible for election as members or to
hold any office in the district panchayat. The tenure of the district panchayat is
five years. If it is dissolved earlier elections must be held within six months. Any
person who is disqualified under law cannot be a voter or a member of the district
Chairman and Vice-Chairman
Every District Panchayat has a Chairman and a Vice Chairman. They are elected by the
elected members from among themselves unless disqualified or removed from office,
they remain in power for five years. An outgoing chairman or vice chairman is eligible
for re-election of panchayat union.

Functions of the Chairman
The political executive of the District Panchayat is its chairman. As such he convenes and
presides over the meetings of the district panchayat and conducts its proceedings. He
inspects the working of the panchayat unions and panchayats and submits his report to
the district panchayat. He writes his opinion on the working of the secretary to the
district panchayat. This is appended with the confidential report written by district
collector. He can delegate any of his functions to the vice-chairman.
In case of emergency he can direct the execution of any work pertaining to the district
panchayat. He has full access to all the records of the district panchayat. Thus, the
chairman of the district panchayat combines the role of a leader of a supervisor. He is
the channel of communication between the district panchayat and the government.
Powers and Functions of District Panchayat
The powers and functions of the district panchayat have been laid down in the Acts
passed by the state legislature, the district panchayat has a coordination and supervisory
role to play.
It performs the following functions:
1. It examines and approves the budgets of the panchayat union.
2. It issues directions to panchayat unions for efficient performance of their
3. It coordinates development plans prepared by the panchayat unions.
4. It advises the state government on all matters relating to the development
activities in the district.
5. It distributes funds, allocated by the state government, to the panchayat unions
in the District.
6. It collects statistics relating to the activities of the local authorities in the district.
7. It advises the state government on allocation of work to be made among the
8. It regulates better relationship between the lower tiers.
9. It exercises such other powers as may be conferred by the state government.

Standing Committees
The District panchayat functions through standing committees. These standing
committees have been constituted for the following subjects.
1. Community development.
2. Agriculture, Cooperation, irrigation and animal husbandry.
3. Cottage, village and small-scale industries.
4. Education and social welfare.
5. Finance and taxation.
6. Public health.
The Chairman and members of these committees are elected among themselves. Where
the chairman of the District panchayat is a member of a committee, he shall be its
Sources of Income
Generally speaking, District Panchayat has the following sources of income t0 meet its
executive functions.
1. Tax on profession and trade.
2. Tax on water and public entertainments.
3. Pilgrim tax.
4. Grants and loans from the state government.
5. Land revenue, establishment and deficit adjustment grants.
6. Plan and block grants.
7. License fee from butchers.
8. Fees on sale of goods or animals in the market.
9. Income from its property.
For each District Panchayat (general) fund is constituted.
The following items are paid into District Panchayat (General)
1. The amount transferred to the District Panchayat fund by appropriation from
out of the consolidated fund of the state.
2. All grants, assignments, loans and contributions made by the government.
3. All rents from lands on other property of the district panchayat.

4. All interests, profits and other moneys accruing by gifts, grants or transfer from
private individuals or institutions.
5. All proceeds of land and other properties sold by the District panchayat.
6. All fees and penalties levied by or paid to the district panchayat.
The government shall provide a grant to every district panchayat fund to cover the
expenses of establishment at such scale as determined it.
The Chief Executive Officers
For each district panchayat a project officer is appointed by the government. The
designation of this officer varies in different states. In Tamil Nadu this officer holds the
rank of Joint Director of Rural Development. The method of recruitment, pay of
allowances, disciplined conduct and conditions of service of the Chief Executive Officer
1. The Chief Executive Officer exercises all the powers specially imposed upon him
by the act of the state legislature.
2. He must supervise and control the execution of all works of the district panchayat.
3. He has the right to attend the meetings of the district panchayat and its
committees and move any resolution in them. But he has no right to vote.
4. He has to carry out the resolutions of the district panchayat.
5. He must furnish the periodical reports about the execution of the resolutions of
the district panchayat and about the collection of taxes.
6. He controls the officers and servants of the district panchayat.
7. He is obliged to carry out the Orders and directions of the district panchayats
8. He can delegate any of his functions, by an order in writing to any officer or
servant the District panchayat.
Panchayat Union
The panchayat union forms the middle tier in the Panchayati Raj System. It is also called
as intermediate tier and panchayat union council (Tamil Nadu).
Size and Composition
The area of panchayat union is generally constituted with the panchayat development
block for purpose of National Extension Service Programme. A panchayat union council

is constituted for each panchayat union. It consists of 112 villages. The administration of
the panchayat union shall rest in the panchayat union council.
The Panchayat Union Council
1. The directly elected members from the words in the panchayat union, at the rate
of one member for every 5000 population of the panchayat union area, only one
member is elected from each ward.
2. The members of the House of people (Lok Sabha) and the members of the state
legislature, belonging to the panchayat union area.
3. The numbers of the council of states who are registered as electors within the
panchayat union.
4. Such number of presidents of village panchayats not exceeding l/5th of the total
number of from among the presidents of the village panchayats in the panchayat
union area. All the members mentioned above are entitled to take part in the
proceedings of and vote at the meetings of, the panchayat union council.
5. However, no person can be elected as a member of more than one panchayat
union council. Seats are reserved for persons belonging to the scheduled castes
and the scheduled tribes in proportion to their strength with the total population
of the panchayat union.
6. 6.1/3rd seats are reserved for women belonging to the scheduled castes/scheduled
tribes from among the total number of seats reserved for the persons belonging to
the schedule castes and scheduled tribes.
7. Seats are also reserved for women in the panchayat union council. The number of
seats reserved for them are allotted by rotation.
Chairman and Vice-Chairman
The head of the panchayat union is named as Chairman in Tamil Nadu. He is directly
elected by the people. There is also a Vice-chairman, they are elected from among the
members of the Panchayat Union Council. Unless disqualified or removed from office,
they hold office for five years. They are eligible, for re-election. The chairman may by an
order in writing delegate any of his functions, which are not prohibited by the Panchayat
Union Council to the Vice-Chairman. The Vice-Chairman can exercise the functions of
the chairman when the office of the Chairman is vacant. If the offices of both Chairman

and Vice-Chairman are vacant, the Revenue Divisional Officer shall be ex-officio
member and chairman of the Panchayat Union Council.
Power and Functions of the Chairman
The Political executive of the Panchayat Union Council is Chairman. His Powers and
functions are as follows.
1. He presides over the meetings of the Panchayat Union and conducts its
2. He exercises control over the Block Development Officer and his staff regarding
the implementation of the decisions and resolutions of the Panchayat Union and
its Standing Committees.
3. He encourages the panchayats and guides them in making plans and carrying out
production programmes.
4. He has full access to all the records of the Panchayat Union Council.
5. All official correspondence between the Union Council and Government must be
conducted only through the Chairman.
6. He can issue orders for the immediate execution of any important work stating
reasons for doing so.
7. He is the ex-officio chairman of the Standing Committee if he happens to be its
Functions of the Panchayat Union
The Panchayat Union plays a pivotal role in the Panchayati Raj System. It is the principal
executive body to implement the community development programmes. It acts as an
agent of the State Government in the performance of responsibilities which may be
specifically assigned to it. Also, the Panchayat Union exercises supervision and control
over village panchayats within its jurisdiction. It also provides the necessary technical
and financial assistance to them. Finally, it is generally empowered to scrutinise and
sanction the budgets of the panchayats in its area. The functions of the Panchayat Union
are two-fold. They relate to the provision of civic amenities and fulfillment of
development programmes.

With regard to the provision of civic amenities, the Panchayat Union has the
following responsibilities.
1. Construction and maintenance of roads within the jurisdiction of the union but
other than purely gram panchayat roads.
2. Supply of drinking water.
3. Maintenance of drainage pipes.
4. Establishment of primary health centers and maternity homes.
5. Provision of medical and health services
6. Provision of primary and basic schools and establishment of adult education
7. Assistance to village roads which serve as feeders.
8. Establishment of libraries
9. Establishment of youth organisations.
10. Encouragement to cultural activities.
The Panchayat Union implements community development programmes in
its area. Its functions are: –
1. Execution of all programmes under community development.
2. Multiplication and distribution of improved seeds.
3. Procurement, distribution and popularisation of improved fertilizers.
4. Reclamation of land and conservation of soil.
5. Providing credit for agricultural purposes.
6. Providing irrigation facilities and repairing tanks.
7. Planting of trees and growing of village trees.
8. Introducing improved breed of cattle, sheep and poultry.
9. Introducing improved fodder.
10. Prevention and curve of disease among cattle.
11. Dairying and milk supply.
12. Introducing and development of cooperative societies.
13. Maintenance of fisheries.
14. Development of cottage, village and small – scale industries.
15. Establishment and maintenance of production-cum-training centers.

Standing Committees
The Panchayat Union performs its functions by constituting Standing Committees.
These committees are statutory bodies. There are five Standing Committees to deal with
the following Functions.
2. Finance and taxation
3. Agricultural production, animal husbandry and minor irrigation.
4. Education and social welfare, including women’s welfare,
5. Public health and sanitation
6. Communications and co-operation.
The members of the Standing Committees are elected by the members of the Panchayat
Union from among themselves. The President of the Panchayat Union is the Chairman
of the Finance and Taxation Committee. These committees exercise those powers which
are delegated to them by the Panchayat Union. The Block Development Officer functions
as the Secretary of the Standing Committees.
Sources of Income:
Normally Panchayat Union has the following sources of income.
1. Proceeds of taxes and fees which a Panchayat Union may levy.
2. Share of local cess and land revenue received from the District Panchayat.
3. Grants from the State Government
4. Loans from the State Government
5. Income from leases granted by the Panchayat Union to public ferries, fairs, etc.
6. Ad hoc grants from or through the District Panchayat
7. Donations and contributions
8. Funds from schemes transferred by the Government to the Panchayat Union as
an agency for execution.
In addition to these, a Panchayat Union has many other sources of income. According to
the Tamil Nadu Panchayats Act 1994 there shall be constituted for each Panchayat
Union, a Panchayat Union (General) Fund and a Panchayat Union (Education) fund. The
General Fund contains receipts from 27 items and the Education Fund from seven items
as mentioned in the Act. Panchayat Unions in other states also have Panchayat Union

Administrative Machinery
In order to perform its functions, the Panchayat, Union has an administrative
machinery. It is headed by the Block Development Officer. There is one Extension Officer
to assist the Block Development Officer. These development officers are the paid
servants of the state Government. They are specialists in the respective fields like
agriculture, animal husbandry, public health, etc, below them are the other staff. The
Block Development Officer is an area or Circle administrator. He is designated as
Commissioner in Panchayat Union Council.
The Block Development Officer functions as
1. Head of the office
2. Captain of the team of extension officers, and
3. Secretary of the Panchayat Union.
As head of the office, the Block Development Officer looks after office work and day-today administration. He coordinates various technical functions in the block and
implements several development programmes. He also conducts a number of enquiries.
The Block Development Officer the secretary at the chief Executive Office of the
panchayat union.
He performs the following functions:
1. He implements various resolutions of the panchayat union and its standing
2. He supervises the panchayat in the block. He issues notices for the meetings of
the panchayat union and its standing committees. He records and maintains the
proceedings of those meetings.
3. He participated in the deliberations of the union without any voting right.
4. He draws and disburses money out of union funds.
5. In case of fraud, embezzlement and theft of money, he reports to the president
of the union and the District Collector.
6. He executes all plans and programmes approved by the appropriate authorities
7. He expects the financial position of the panchayats within his block
8. He supervises end controls the other officers and staff of the panchayat union.
9. He executes contracts for and on behalf of the union subject to its prior approval.

Gram Sabha
Gram sabha is the foundation of the Panchayat Raj. It is a general body. It has been
recognised as a statutory and corporate body. It is composed of all the eligible voters of
the village panchayat. The jurisdiction of a village panchayat may be confined to one or
more villages with an average population of 500. Being a grass root organisation at the
very lowest level it serves as the basic unit of direct democracy. Hence it is considered as
a vital device of democratic control. The Gram sabha should hold at least three meetings
in a financial year. The president of the village panchayat has the responsibility to
convene the meetings of the Gram sabha. The gram sabha is a sovereign body. Hence it
can authorise the village panchayat to do certain things by itself.
The functions of the gram sabha are as follows
1. Grama Sabha reviews the progress of the works done by the panchayat.
2. It draws plan for the development of the sabha area.
3. It considers the annual statement of accounts and audit report of the panchayat.
4. It considers the administrative report of the last year and the programme of work
for the ensuing year.
5. It approves the annual budget and development schemes of the village panchayat.
Gram Sabha Meeting
The village panchayat is the primary unit and the first of the Panchayat Raj system. It is
constituted for each panchayat village which has a minimum population of 500. The
minimum strength of the village panchayat will be five and maximum fifteen depending
upon the population. The village panchayat is the executive committee of the gram
sabha. Its members are directly elected by the gram sabha by secret ballot.
The entire village is divided into wards and each ward elects one to three members. There
is provision for one-third reservation of seats for scheduled castes, scheduled Tribes of
women. The village panchayat is headed by a President. The President of the village
panchayat is directly elected by the members of the Gram sabha. He can be removed
from office on a resolution of no-confidence passed against him by a two-thirds Majority
of the Gram sabha. There is also a Vice-President for each panchayat. All adult citizens
of above 18 years old are entitled to vote. Those who have completed 21 years of age alone
can be elected as members and President and Vice President of the panchayat. The

duration of the village panchayat of the tenure of its members is 5 years. If the panchayat
is dissolved earlier, elections must be held within six months.
Powers and functions of the President
The President is the political executive of the village panchayat. He has the following
powers and functions.
1. He convenes the meetings of the gram sabha and the village panchayat
2. He presides over the meetings of the panchayat
3. He maintains the records of the panchayat.
4. He exercises administrative control over the panchayat staff.
5. He supervises the implementation of the resolutions passed by the panchayat.
6. He is responsible for the proper execution of the decisions taken in the village
7. He is authorised to manage the panchayat funds
8. He attends the meeting of the panchayat union and represents his panchayat
9. He exercises all powers as are conferred on him by the Act or the rules made under
the Act by the state government.
The Vice-President discharges these functions in the absence of the President.
Functions of the Village Panchayat
The village panchayat is entrusted with several welfare functions and developmental
activities. Its fundamental responsibility is the preparation of plans and implementation
of schemes for economic development and social Justice at the village level. The village
panchayat must perform all such functions as are prescribed by the law of the State
Government. These are classified into compulsory and optional functions.
Compulsory Functions
1. Development of agriculture.
2. Promotion of cottage industries.
3. Maintenance of public wells and tanks.
4. Supply of drinking water.
5. Provision for sanitation and drainage.
6. Lighting of village streets and other public places.
7. Maintenance of burial and cremation grounds.

8. Registration of births, deaths and marriages.
9. Maintenance of cattle ponds and the general care of the live stock.
10. Protection of the property of the village panchayat.
11. Construction and maintenance of minor irrigation works.
12. Regulation of public market and fairs.
13. Ear marking places for dumping the refuses.
14. Promotion of social education and supervision of schools.
15. Collection and maintenance of statistical data.
16. Arrangement for the distribution of imposed seeds and measures.
17. Maintenance of maturity homes and slaughterhouses.
18. Assistance in the implementation of the land reforms schemes.
19. Vaccination, innoculation and anti-epidemic measures.
Optional Functions
1. Planting and nursing of trees on road sides
2. Construction and maintenance of play grounds, libraries, reading rooms, parks
3. Reclamation of unhealthy localities.
4. Managing the community centers.
5. Relief to the poor and looking after public health.
6. Establishment of crop godowns.
7. Promotion of cooperative farming, family planning and animal husbandry.
8. Regulation of pig rearing.
9. Removal of untouchability.
10. Construction and maintenance of houses for the conservancy staff of the village
Sources of Income
1. Animal Tax.
2. Building Tax.
3. Fines on account of violation of panchayat laws.
4. Fees paid for presenting legal case before the panchayat.
5. Registration of animal fees for selling the animals in its area.
6. Rent from village properties.
7. Local trade tax.

8. Tax on vehicles such as bullock carts.
9. Grants-in-aid sanctioned by the state government.
10. Matching grants given by the state government.
The receipts of the village panchayat are credited into the village panchayat fund. The
money required for expenditure to carry out its various functions and to meet other
obligations is released from this fund. There is an executive authority in each village
panchayat. He is appointed by the state government. He carries out the resolutions of
the village panchayat. He controls all the officers and servants of the village panchayat.
By discharging his duties, he also looks after the day-to-day administration of the village
under his Jurisdiction.
1. Jaya Launches ‘Amma Seeds’ Scheme for Farmers
Launched “Amma seeds” scheme on January 2, 2016.Tamilnadu Chief Minister
J.Jayalalithaa has launched the scheme ‘Amma Seeds’ available through ‘Amma Service
Centres across the state, executing an announcement made in the Tamil Nadu Assembly
in 2014 for farmers’ welfare.
Aim: To provide quality seeds and to encourage farmers with a view to increase
agricultural production in the State. To encourage farmers to use certified seeds to use
certified seeds.
Earlier Schemes: Amma Canteens providing subsidized food and Amma Mineral
Nodal Body: Tamil Nadu State Seeds Development Agency.
Fund of ₹5.37 crore towards expanding a scheme for urban citizens to grow vegetables
at home to Tiruchirappalli and Madurai.
Urban residential area will be encouraged to produce Vegetable above the roofs of the
houses. Sold through Amma Service Centres and at a reasonable price. Expanding a
scheme for urban citizens to grow vegetables at home to Tiruchirappalli and Madurai.
2. Jayalalitha Launches ‘Amma Call Centre’ For Grievance Redressal
Tamil Nadu Chief J Jayalalithaa launched a round-the-clock call centre for ensuring
fast response to grievances.

Aim: Ensuing quick response to people’s grievances wherein they can dial tollfree
number ‘1100’ at any point of time in the day.
3. Jayalalithaa Announcess ‘Amma Kudineer Thittam’
1. Jayalalithaa the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu had announced ‘Amma Kudineer
Thittam’ a new scheme for supplying drinking water.
2. Under the Scheme the govt will supply the water to those who cannot afford to
buy purified drinking water from private players.
3. Under the first phase of the scheme water supplying points will be established.
4. The family of poor people is provided with 20 liters of pure water every day.
5. Smart Cards will be issued to beneficiaries.
4. Tamil Nadu Announces Free Bus Travel for Senior Citizens
1. Tamil Nadu government had announced free bus travel for senior citizens in
Chennai metropolitan areas.
2. To gain the benefits of the scheme person has to fill an application form and
submit it to transport authorities for the tokens.
3. Free bus passes will be provided to the senior citizens. Ten tokens are given to the
person for a month.
5. Tamil Nadu Govt. Allotted ₹204 Crore For ‘Thaaliku Thangam’ Scheme
1. Tamil Nadu government had allotted ₹204 crore towards the implementation of
enhanced gold scheme under a marraige assistance programme.
2. ‘Thaaliku Thangam’ (Gold for Mangalsutra) scheme for the year 2016-17 would
benefit 12,500 women. This scheme involves providing marriage assistance and
gold for daughters of poor parents and widows among others to make ‘thaali’.
3. While 12.500 women who had applied for the scheme would be provided with 8
gm of gold this year., about 1.4 lakh others who had applied earlier will be provided
with 4 gm.
6. Tamil Nadu Govt. To Launch 50 ‘Amma Free Wi-Fi’
1. Jayalalithaa lead government issued order to set up ‘Amma Free Wi-Fi’ zones in
50 places across the Tamil Nadu on September 23, 2016.
2. In the first phase, 50 schools will be covered at a cost of ₹10 crore.

7. Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Palaniswami Launches ₹1580 Cr Housing
The Tamil Nadu Chief Minister K. Palaniswai launched a Housing Scheme on March
9, 2017 for construction of concrete houses for the economically poor section of the
society. The project is estimated at ₹1,580 crore and will be implemented by the State
Government with financial assistance from the Center.
8.Amma Unavagam
Since 2013.
Aim : Under the scheme, municipal corporations of the state-run canteens serving
Subsidised low cost food to poor people.
Beneficiaries : Economically disadvantaged sections of society.
Benefit : Subsidised low cost food
9. Amma Pharmacy
Launched on 26, June 2014.
Aim: These medical shops sell all kind of medicines – generic and branded lower than
the market rates. It will ‘sell quality medicines at fair prices. Daily wage labourers are the
most benefited from this scheme.
Branches: Chennai, Erode, Salem, Cuddalore, Madurai, Sivaganga and Virudhunagar.
10. Amma Two-Wheeler Scheme
Launched on 70th Birth Anniversary of Jayalalitha (February 24, 2018).
Aim: The subsidized scooter scheme for working women
Beneficiaries: Working Women
Benefit: Subsidy component of 50 per cent upto ₹25,000. Eligibility criteria are License
Holder, 8th standard, 2.5 lakhs annual income.
Age : 18 to 40 years.
Physically challenged and transgender also included in this scheme.
11.Amma Thittam
1. Since 24-02-2013.
2. Assured Maximum Service to Marginal People in All Villages.

3. A group headed by Revenue Department officials and Tashildar would visit every
village on every Tuesday to meet the people and seek their grievances.
Available services
1. Patta Transfers.
2. Ration Cards – Corrections.
3. Birth / Death Certificates.
4. Community Certificate / Income Certificate / Nativity Certificate / Residential
5. Legal heir certificates.
6. Fist Graduate Certificate.
7. Old Age Pension.
8. Certificates to farmers.
12.Amma Service Centre
1. It was announced in August 8, 2014.
2. Amma Makkal Sevai Maiyyam (Amma People’s Service Centre).
3. The corporations on every Wednesday hold this centre – For Urban Audience.
4. To facilitate delivery of public services such as issue of birth and death certificates,
trade licenses, ration cards, drinking water and sewage connections, permission
for building.
5. The objective of the service centres was to help out those who could not meet
officials on tour, and to avoid any delay in the delivery of services.
13.Amma Vegetable Shops
1. Since June 21, 2013.
2. Pannai Pasumai Nugarvor Kootturavu Kadai or farm fresh cooperative store.
3. The fair price vegetable shops to sell farm-fresh vegetables at substantially lower
rates in Chennai and its suburbs.
4. The government departments (cooperation, food and consumer protection)
procure vegetables directly from the farmers for the shops.
5. With this step, the government has been able to keep the prices low by keeping the
middlemen at bay.

14.Amma micro loans scheme
Launched on January 23, 2016.
1. To provide micro loans for small traders who were affected by last year’s (2015)
2. The traders can avail loan upto ₹5,000 from cooperative banks and the
government will pay the interest of 11%.
3. They can repay it as little as ₹200 a week over 25 weeks.
4. Those who do not repay the loan in 25 weeks will be charged a nominal interest of
4% on the outstanding amount.
5. Those who pay on time are eligible for higher loans upto ₹25,000.
6. Sellers of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and other small vendors.
7. The objective of the scheme is to help out small traders who are forced to take
loans at a high rate of interest from moneylenders.
15.Amma Mobile
1. Announced in September 2015.
2. Mobile phone handset with a 3G sim card, a camera and GPRS.
3. Under the scheme, “computerized mobile phones” loaded with special Tamil
software would be provided to 20,000 self-help group (SHG) trainers in the first
phase at a cost of ₹15 crore.
4. The monthly cost for operating the phones would be borne by the Tamil Nadu
Corporation for Development of Women.
16.Amma Laptops
1. From 15, September, 2011 for school students.
2. Studying in Government and Government- aided schools and colleges in the state
to facilitate them in acquiring better skills.
3. From Plus Two onwards to Under Graduates, including those pursuing
Engineering and Polytechnic.
4. The state-owned ELCOT (Electronics Corporation of Tamil Nadu) functions as the
nodal agency.
5. Other states with Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Odisha following suit

17.Amma Gym
The Tamilnadu Chief Minister Edappadi K Palaniswami inaugurated Amma Gym on
27.07.2018 at Konganapuram in Salem district. Amma Gyms will be established in
the space available in Amma Parks and will be maintained by village panchayats.
Advantages of AMMA Gym
1. It helps the rural youth to do physical exercise and keep their body fit.
2. Increases the health consciousness among rural people.
3. Enhances the mental strength and team spirit of the youth.
4. Prepares the youth for sports and games.
Beneficiary: People of the rural area.
Benefits: Fitness to the Rural Citizen.
18.Amma Baby Care Kit
1. Since 2014.
2. Every mother who gave birth in the government hospital gets 16 types of products
worth ₹1000.
3. Kit contains a baby towel, dress, bed, mosquito net, baby oil, soap, sanitizer, doll,
medicine (for both the mother and the baby).
19.Amma Kudineer
1. Launched on September 15, 2013 on the `105’ birth anniversary of Annadurai.
2. A mineral water production and distribution project.
3. The project involves production and packaging of mineral water in one litre plastic
bottles, and selling them in long-distance running state-owned buses and in bus
4. The price has been fixed at INR 10 per bottle.
5. The scheme is run by the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation, with a
production plant in Gummidipoondi in Thiruvallur district.
6. Poor families across the city would receive 20 litres of purified drinking water free
of cost.
7. In the first phase, 100 localities in Chennai will be chosen for this initiative.
8. The total dissolved solids (TDS) in the water is reported to be below 50 parts per
million (ppm).

20.AMMA Salt
1. Since 2014 made by the Tamil Nadu Salt Corporation (TNSC) for the benefit of
the weaker sections.
2. Three varieties – Double Fortified Salt, Refined Free Salt and Low Sodium Salt
priced at ₹25, ₹21 and ₹14.
3. To give an impetus to the development of the backward area of Ramanathapuram
District, Tamil Nadu in South India.
4. To generate employment opportunities to ameliorate the living condition of the
weaker segment of the society.
5. To exploit the potential resource of the sea for the production of salt, salt-based
bye-products and marine chemicals.
21.AMMA Amudham Super Markets
1. 54 Amma Amudham Departmental stores in 25 districts on 11.01.2016 by
Tamilnadu Civil Supplies Corporation under the Prize Stabilization Fund.
2. To provide provisional things in the cheap price.
22.AMMA Cement
1. It was announced by Jayalalithaa in September 2014
2. First from Srirangam constituency in Tiruchi district in January 2015.
3. To help lower- and middle-income groups purchase cement at subsidised prices.
4. Amma Cement hit markets at ₹190 a bag.
5. Produced by Tamilnadu Cements Corporation Limited (TANCEM).
6. The original cost of a cement bag is about ₹360 here and the price will be reduced
to nearly half under the scheme.
7. Consumers will be issued 50 bags per 100 square feet, subject to a maximum of
750 bags for 1,500 square feet for building houses.
8. The general public can get a minimum of 10 to a maximum of 100 cement bags
under the scheme.
9. Sold through 220 godowns of the Tamil Nadu Civil Supplies Corporation (TNCSC)
And also Sold through 250 godowns of the Rural Development and Panchayat
Department across the State.

23.Amma Call Centre
1. This scheme launched on 20, January 2016.
2. The toll-free number 1100.
3. For round the clock throughout the year.
4. In the initial phase to receive at least 15,000 calls per day.
5. For people to register grievances about government departments.
6. The details of the grievances from callers would be sent to officials concerned
through e-mail, phone call.
7. The caller too would be informed about the officer, who has been informed of the
complaint and further the action taken on it.
8. The Amma call centre is considered as an extension of CM’s cell, where she
receives petitions from the public directly or by post or e-mail.
24.Kudi Maramathu Scheme
Launched on 13 March 2017 by Chief Minister Edappadi K. Palaniswami at
Manimangalam village in Kancheepuram district. It has been allocated an amount
of 100 crores in its first phase.
1. To restore the water bodies of Tamil Nadu such as dams, lakes and reservoirs with
the help of local farmers.
2. It aims to remove weeds from water bodies and strengthen their water-banks
3. It included maintenance works in canals, tanks, shutters and reconstruction
The beneficiaries: The farmers
Financial assistance:
Farmers have to contribute 10 percent of the allocation. This contribution can be in the
form of cash, labour or material. The scheme has also received financial assistance from
the World Bank.
Government Order on 4th July, 2018 regarding the appointment of 7 IAS Officers as
monitoring officers of the scheme.

25.Nutritious Meal Programme
It is called Mid-Day Meal Scheme also called as Puratchi Thalaivar MGR Nutritious Meal
Programme. Launched in 1st July 1982 for Primary Schools and to Pre-school Children
of 2-5 years in Rural areas. Extended to Nutritious Meal Centres in urban areas from 15-
9-1982.Further extended to school students in the age group of 10 to 15 from September
The students in I to V Standard do receive nutritious meal throughout the year (except
holidays). Those in the VI to X Standard receive the meal in all the school working days
(220 days).
1. Achieving universal primary education, motivation for further education,
increasing enrolment, retention & reducing dropouts.
2. To make available nutritious food to children enrolled in schools thereby reducing
child mortality, morbidity & malnutrition.
3. To develop the grasping power of children by improving the nutrition level.
4. Combating all diseases including those resulting due to deficiencies.
5. Reduce gender gap in education.
6. To develop the feelings of brotherhood and to develop positive outlook through
combined fooding for the children belonging to different religions and castes.
Day and Menu
1. Monday – White Rice, Vegetable Sambar with one boiled egg (one banana for
those who do not eat egg).
2. Tuesday – White Rice, Vegetable Sambar with one boiled egg (one banana for
those who do not eat egg) and 20 gms of boiled green gram or Bengal gram
3. Wednesday – White Rice, Vegetable Sambar with one boiled egg (one banana for
those who do not eat egg).
4. Thursday – White Rice, Vegetable Sambar with one boiled egg (one banana for
those who do not eat egg).

5. Friday – White Rice, Vegetable Sambar with one boiled egg (one banana for those
who do not eat egg) and 20 gms of boiled potato.
Earlier as Sivagami Ammaiyar Memorial girl child protection scheme.
1. Promoting education of girl children.
2. Eradicating female infanticide.
3. Discouraging the preference for male child.
4. Promoting the welfare of girl children in poor families and to raise the status of
girl children.
5. Encourage girls to get married only after the age of 18 years.
Eligibility criteria
1. The family only has one girl child and no male child in the family.
2. Age of the child should be less than 3 years at the time of enrolment in the scheme.
3. Annual income of the family should not exceed ₹72,000/.
4. Either of the parents should have undergone sterilization within 35 years of age.
1. An amount of ₹50,000 is deposited in the name of the girl child born on or after
2. In the form of fixed deposit with the Tamil Nadu Power Finance and
Infrastructure Development Corporation Limited.
3. For a family with one girl child only.
4. The copy of the fixed deposit receipt is given to the family of the girl child.
1. An amount of ₹25,000 is deposited in the names of two girl children born on or
after 01/08/2011.
2. In the form of fixed deposit with Tamil Nadu Power Finance and Infrastructure
Development Corporation Limited.
3. For a family with two girl children only.
4. The copy of the fixed deposit receipt is given to the family of the girl children.

For both schemes
1. The above deposit is renewed at the end of every 5 years.
2. On completion of 18 years of age the amount deposited along with interest will be
given to the girl child.
3. To get this benefit, the girl child should appear for 10th standard public
4. Thus, the matured amount will help the girl child to pursue her higher education.
5. An annual incentive of ₹1800 is given to the girl child every year from the 6th year
of deposit.
6. Annual income limit ₹72000/.
Female literacy increased from 64.55% in 2001 to 73.44% in 2011 and Reduction in the
dropout rate of girl children.
27.Cradle Baby Scheme
Launched in the year 1992 at Salem. Later in 2001 Madurai, Theni, Dindigul and
Dharmapuri. In 2011 Cuddalore, Ariyalur, Perambulur, Villupuram and
Thiruvannamalai also.
1. To eliminate the incidence of female infanticide and to create awareness among
people regarding equality of gender.
2. To provide social empowerment to girl children.
Deserted & surrendered babies.
1. Cradles are placed in reception centers, District social welfare board offices,
District Collectorates, Hospitals, Primary Health Centers, Orphanages, and
Children Homes to receive unwanted babies.
2. Surrendered/abandoned children are then placed in Government recognized
institutions/centres for adoption by eligible couples.

3. The differently abled children who are unable to be given in for adoption are
handed over to specialized agencies for care and protection.
1. NGO/citizens are encouraged to bring abandoned babies.
2. The District social welfare officer and extension officers (Social welfare) are the
officials for availing the information to beneficiaries and also organize camps,
seminars and conferences to create awareness about female infanticide.
3. Cradle baby centers set up cost is 47.45 lakh and each center have a
superintendent, an assistant nurse, an assistant and other workers and adequate
stock of milk powder, medicine and clothes.
Child sex ratio which was 942/1000 in 2001 has risen to 943/1000 in 2011.
28.THAI Scheme
Known as Tamil Nadu Village Habitations Improvement. By Tamilnadu Rural
Development since 2011/12.
To overcome the bottlenecks in the uneven distribution of resources and to provide
minimum basic infrastructure facilities to all the habitations.
Tamil Nadu is the only State focusing on ‘Habitation’ as the unit of development and no
other State in the Country is implementing such an innovative scheme.
Minimum Basic Requirements
1. Water Supply
2. Street Lights
3. Cement Concrete Roads
4. Link Roads
5. Cremation / Burial Grounds
6. Pathway to Burial Ground.
29.Chennai Mini Bus
Tamil Nadu government on 23rd October, 2013 launched 50 ‘small bus’ services in
Chennai to connect areas without transportation facilities to the nearest bus stands and

railway stations. Such a facility, also called the ‘mini bus’ service, is already available in
other parts of the state.
30.Transgender measures
1. First state to introduce a transgender (hijra/aravani) welfare policy.
2. A special database of transgenders – first in the country.
3. Transgender welfare board – 15 April as ‘Thirunangai Day’ (Transgender Day) to
commemorate the day in which the Transgender Welfare Board was formed.
4. Free ration cards and free housing schemes.
5. opportunity to change sex without any fee through operation at the Government
General Hospitals
6. Free education in Manonmaniyam Sundaranar university.
7. Swapna is the first trans person to clear TNPSC Group IV exams.
8. Prithika Yashini received appointment orders from Chennai City Police.
1. Explain the trends in the state economic growth in Tamilnadu.
2. What is rural women empowerment? Explain the measures or schemes taken by
Tamilnadu government for strengthening women.
3. List our recent Tamilnadu government welfare schemes.

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