• Agriculture plays a vital role in socio-economic development of India. It is a source of livelihood and food security for Indians. Major determinant factors of agriculture :

          1) Land form

          2) Climate

          3) Soil types

  1. Water

Types of Agriculture

  1. Primitive agriculture
  2. Subsistence agriculture
  3. Commercial agriculture
  4. Plantation agriculture.

Cropping Pattern

  • While cropping, according to the terrain and climate, the farmers are using various patterns namely, single,double, multiple, mixed cropping and crop rotation.
  • Single cropping also known as mono cropping is a systems of farming where one crop can grow during a season or a year.
  • Double cropping is a system under which two crops are raised by the farmers form the same plot of land during a year.
  • Multiple cropping is a system under which the farmer grow more than two crops from the same plot of land during a year
  • Mixed cropping means the cultivation of more than one crop simultaneously on the same piece of land. The two crops are sown together but harvested at different times.
  • Crop rotation is a system of farming by which different crops are alternately grown on the same land in a specific order.

Agricultural Seasons of India

  • The agricultural activities begin with the onset of monsoon in the month of June. India have three major cropping seasons in a year, as shown in the following table

Agricultural Seasons


Sowing Period

Harvest Period

Major Crops





June (Beginning of monsoon)

November (Beginning of winter)

March (Beginning of Summer)

Early days of November

March (Beginning of summer)

June (Beginning of monsoon)


Paddy, maize, cotton, millet, jute, sugarcane

Wheat, Tobacco, Mustard, Pulses, Linseed, Grains

Fruits, Vegetables, Water melons, Cucumber.

Production of food crops


  • Paddy is the most important food crop of India. India stands in second place in the production of paddy. India and China together produce about 90% of the total world production of Paddy.  Sugandh 5, Sukaradhara-1 are the hybrid variety seeds recommended for the cultivation in the areas of Haryana, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir and uphills of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. 
  • The other rice producting states are west Bengal, Punjab, Uttarpradesh, Bihar and Odisha in North India and Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh in South India. There is something special about paddy cultivation in Thanjavur District, the ‘rice bowl’ of Tamil Nadu.


  • Wheat is an important food Crop. It is the staple food for the northern and northwestern part of India. Wheat is cultivated both in winter and spring.  Uttar Pradesh and Haryana are the major producers.  Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh,  Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh are the other wheat producing states.  The production of wheat has been increased I n Punjab and Haryana due to the impact of Green Revolution.



Associated with the production of

Green Revolution

White Revolution

Grey Revolution

Golden Revolution

Yellow Revolution

Blue Revolution

Agricultural Crops

Milk and Milk Products

Eggs and Poultry


Oil Seeds

Marine Products



  • Millets as cereal crops are intermediate between rice and wheat. It includes jower, bajra and ragi. Millets are coarse grain, and dry crops.  They are cultivated in poor soils.  Millets are grown in almost all the states in India, but the important producers are Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha, Bihar, Maharastra and Gujarat.


  • Pulse crops include a large number of crops which are mostly leguminous and rich in proteins. The most important producers are Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab, Maharastra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Cash Crops

  • Many other crops are also cultivated in our country in addition to the above food crops. Sugarcane, Cotton, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Oil Seeds, Tobacco and Rubber are some among then. They are mainly produced as raw materials for industries.


  • Sugar Cane is a tropical crop. It grows well in the hot humid climate. India is the birth place of sugarcane. The Major sugarcane Producing states are Utter Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana. 


  • Cotton is a major fibre crop of India. Black soil is the most suitable soil for cotton cultivation. India has fourth position in the world cotton production.  The main cotton growing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh , Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.


  • Jute is also the most important fibre crop next to cotton. It is also called as Golden fibre crop. Its cultivation is restricted mainly to the Ganga Brahamaputra delta in West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Assam and Meghalaya.


  • Tobacco is said to have been brought to India by the Portuguese in 1508. India is the third largest producer followed by China and U.S.A.

Oil Seeds

India is one of the oil seed producing countries of the world.  India grows all types of oil seeds except olive and palmoil.  The major oil seeds producing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Karnataka. 

Plantation Crops


It is an important beverage crop.  The tea plant grows well in tropical and subtropical climates endowed with deep and fertile soil.  Well drained hill slopes between 3000-4000 feet height are suitable for cultivation.  Assam, West Bengal, Kerala and Tamil Nadu are the major producers.

Coffee is the most important beverage crop. Indian coffee is known for its quality.  Karnataka produces 60% of Indian coffee.  Other coffee growing states are Kerala and Tamil Nadu.


Rubber is obtained from latex of rubber tree.  About 95% of the areas is confined to the lower elevations of western Ghats in Kerala State and 5%  is spread over Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman Nicobar islands.

Fruits and Vegetables

Apple is mostly produced in Himachal Pradesh, Kashmir and Uttarkhand. Production of banana, is concentrated in Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Orange is cultivated in Maharashtra, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.  Grape is cultivated mainly in Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.  India contributes about 13% of the worlds production of vegetables.

Animal husbandry and fisheries

Poultry and eggs are increasing through genetic improvement and better management practices.

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